Thanksgiving football

Have fun and games is an indispensable part of entertainment for young and old alike. In America, people celebrate this charity festival by participating enthusiastically Football which will bring the joy and joy of football fans into the hearts of many fanatical football fans during this festive season. Over the years, Football has become synonymous with this joyful festival Thanksgiving .
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Many interesting traditions have invaded the Thanksgiving festival, for example, the game of football complicates this festival of fun games. Professional football was the last of today’s trends in celebrating the spirit of Thanksgiving. It was the first in 1874, eleven years after Lincoln was proclaimed collegiate football was played.
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Two years later, the Intercollegiate Football Association was formed in the northeast, launching a championship game mainly to entertain people Thanksgiving .
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Every year, strong competitors like Princeton and Yale carry the coveted winner’s cup. Players, students, and fans would wear their school colors as a symbol of representation along with high-flying bands from New York wagons, hotels, and businesses.
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On top Thanksgiving ecclesiastical worship ends early to house fans, kicking off the 2007 season solemnity For the New York social elite. It had gained such popularity that by the mid-1890s, 1,20,000 athletes were attending 5,000 colleges, clubs, and high schools Thanksgiving football games across the nation.
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The tradition of watching a football match on Thanksgiving has evolved in the early decades of the twentieth century. When football paved the way for the hearts of millions of winners, already gaining tremendous popularity in the 1920s and 1930s, and earning such a prestigious position today, many people began to visit the football stadium to watch the same.
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Well-known teams playing for the world-famous football league America finally established a tradition of nationally televised games on Thanksgiving afternoon.
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In addition to the usual competition organized by the nationally recognized football league In America, many high schools and colleges also organize ” Turkey Day “Thanksgiving weekend football matches, often between regional or historical rivals.
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Thanksgiving football in American schools and colleges is now more or less forgotten in most parts of the country and is kept alive in only two franchise cities. It is globally recognized. American Football League , namely Detroit and Dallas, where Thanksgiving football there are many lifestyles.
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Thanksgiving football more often it is associated with the Lions team and tradition that has been popular in Detroit since 1934. The game was invented by GA Richards, the team’s first owner, who has wild lions like high-quality team-mates.
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In fact, four generations of detroiters have been a proud part of celebrating American Thanksgiving. About 71 years later, fans in the state of Michigan have turned the local event into an annual holiday event, giving it one of the greatest traditions in world history. American professional team sports.
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In fact, there is no other professional team sports it can be said that there is so much to do American vacation if this team that has a wild lion like players & # 39; team with Thanksgiving . This team has hosted the game every Thanksgiving since 1934, except 1939-1944 due to World War II. Dallas has also hosted football matches every Thanksgiving since 1966.
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So we find it all started in 1934 when GA Richards, a local radio host, bought the Spartans from Portsmouth, Ohio, and moved the team to Detroit, Motor City. Lions When the city arrived, the baseball tigers had backed the sports pages.
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Richards had practical reasons to plan a Thanksgiving game because he was also smart enough to realize that the best way to promote a team is to select a Thanksgiving contest to attract teams to a motor city fan.
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first season. Acute collision Lions and the undefeated world champion, which means powerful Bears Chicago turned out to be an all-time classic. Lions were exceptionally good – eight wins supported them, leading them to the tournament Bears With a 10-1 record. But Chicago had an even better record, holding 11 straight victories.
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Then the match reached an interesting phase, where victory in the only fateful game ensured either Lions will receive first place with a tie Bears . Two weeks before that fatal match, 26,000 tickets for a “Turkey Day” clash were sold at the University of Detroit stadium.
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Richards had not been in control of the last two losses, but rather substantive as his team had been in its first year. His faith and confidence in the team was recognized when Lions won the 1935 America’s Most Popular Competition soccer championship .
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The final match was to take place today, when the Lions defeated the Bears 14-2 to pack the Western Championship trophy. The radio, which had enormous advertising potential, was used as a bait to engage the audience. Richards set up 94-station network with nationally recognized broadcaster to broadcast Lions Bears showdown. After that, two nationally televised games, which usually include the famous footballers of Dallas, one of the most successful and popular franchises in the sport, and one of the least successful Detroit players.
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2006 will be globally recognized for the 87th season American football and is expected to run from September 7 to December 31, New Year’s Eve. Ideally, three games are provided Thanksgiving . In addition to the traditional annual game, known worldwide American football Detroit and Dallas home games players that day, the Kansas City Chiefs who organized their days at the American Football League, get this tradition 2006 hosting Denver players on Thanksgiving. All of these games are scheduled to be broadcast live.

Friends and families across America usually prefer to fuss around the radio or TV to watch a live match while pouting on special dishes prepared for remembrance Thanksgiving . Thus, every Thanksgiving would actually revive the old classic tradition of enjoying a football match during a celebration. For decades Football and Thanksgiving has created a strong bond that leads to high adrenaline rises.

Historic route 66 through Arizona

On Route 66, its history can be traced back to the late 1920s, when it was first offered and stocked. But it was not until 1938 that the road was completely paved from its eastern beginning in Chicago, Illinois, to its western end in Santa Monica, CA, about 2,450 miles later. Of course, this route can go east or west, although most Route 66 passengers prefer to travel from east to west, just as Joad's family did in John Steinbeck's famous literary work, The Grapes of Wrath.

Unfortunately, Route 66 was replaced in the 1960s by new interstate highways that bypassed many small towns and were completely removed from the interstate highway system in 1985. But partly also on Route 66 for many organizations, small-town chambers of commerce, enthusiasts and historians refused many to die. Over the last 25 years, new heritage tourism has taken place, which has reaffirmed its interest in preserving this great piece of Americana history and nostalgia, Route 66.

Often referred to as "Mother Road," "American Highway," or "Will Rogers Road," the route passes through eight different states: Illinois, Missouri, Kansas, Oklahoma, Texas, New Mexico, Arizona, and California. Let's take a closer look at Arizona.


Arizona is the west of 7 of 8 Route 66 states with 401 miles on the border. It has some of the most beautiful scenery, some of the most unique must-see bodies, the highest elevation and the longest uninterrupted part of Route 66 throughout the journey.

Geographically, Arizona is home to the Meteor Crater, a petrified forest and a painted desert. These locations offer amazing photographic opportunities as well as the opportunity to explore and explore these natural attractions.

About 75 miles to Arizona, both the Petrified Forest and the Painted Desert, is the city of Holbrook. Wigwam Village Motel is home to most Route 66 travelers, and many mention this attraction as the highlight of their trip. Further west is Joseph City, a Mormon establishment founded in the late 1870s. The famous Jackrabbit Trading Post is located in Joseph City. One of Route 66's most well-known signing sites is the famous billboard near Jackrabbit's trade post, which calls out "HERE IT IS".

A meteorite crater and a "corner" to the west of "Winslow", Winslow, extinct Two guns, an abandoned twin arrow and "don't forget" Winona is a city in Flagstaff. Flagstaff has the famous Lowell Observatory and is the gateway to the Grand Canyon, an hour's drive north. The canyon is well-deserved alongside Route 66 to see one of the eight wonders of wildlife in the world. If you wish, you can also reach the grand Grand Canyon via the Grand Canyon Railroad just 30 miles west of Flagstaff. Between Flagstaff and Williams is Brannigan Peak. At 7,320 feet above sea level, the Rt is the highest elevation in the entire route. 66.

15 miles west of Williams is Ash Fork, the world's flagship capital. Just past Ash Fork, you can say goodbye to I-40 as you begin Route 66's longest uninterrupted journey. Be sure to stop by the legendary Snow Cap Drive in Seligman and the exciting Hackberry general store before Kingman arrives. Here you will find many surviving business establishments catering to Route 66 travelers, including a very well-made museum.

Be sure to leave Kingman while you still have daylight, as you will not miss the incredible landscape that awaits you as you travel through the Black Mountain setbacks and hairpins. Oatman is waiting, as are many savage buros who call the old mining town home. Be sure to check out the historic Oatman Hotel where Clark Gable and Carole Lombard spent honeymoon.

Leaving Oatman, you can quickly get past the casinos of Laughlin Nevada and try your luck or move on to Golden Shores, Topock and return to I-40 to cross the mighty Colorado River to California.

Gangster in America – Jack "Legs" Diamond – Gangster who did not die

Jack "Feet" The diamond was shot and wounded so many times that he was called "The Gangster Who Didn't Die."

Born on July 10, 1897 in Clarus, Kilrush, Ireland, Diamond, Diamond spent his first years in Philadelphia. After his mother died of a viral infection at the age of thirteen, Diamond and his younger brother, Eddie, fell into a harsh group called "The Deserter." The diamond was arrested more than a dozen times as a result of various abductions and chaos, and after spending a few months in the juvenile Reformation, Diamond was pulled into the army. The life of the army did not suit Diamond well. He earned less than a year, then decided to go AWOL. He was soon arrested and sentenced to three to five years in federal prison in Fort Leavenworth, Kansas.

Diamond was released from prison in 1921 and decided that New York City was the place where he could earn his fortune. Diamond and his brother Eddie moved to the East Side of Manhattan where they fell down with a future gangster named Lucky Luciano. Diamond did a variety of odd jobs for Luciano, including a small boot strap with Brooklyn thug Vannie Higgins. Diamond's marriage to Florance Williams lasted only a few months (he was never home). But his fortune changed when Luciano introduced Diamond to infamous gamer and financial wizard Arnold "Brain" Rothstein. It was the break Diamond expected and he made the best of it.

After taking up Rothstein as a bodyguard, Rothstein introduced Diamond into his lucrative heroin business. When his pockets were full of cash and his need for Rothstein diminished, Diamond decided to pull his brother Eddie on his own. They thought they could make a bundle by hijacking the trunk of other gangsters, including Owney Madden and Big Bill Dwyer. That was not a good idea, as Madden and Dwyer were part of a larger syndicate of criminals, including Luciano, Schultz of the Netherlands and Meyer Lansky. At some point in the Diamond gangster world, there were persona non grata and free collections for anyone who wanted to get rid of him.

In October 1924, Diamond Dodge was driving a sedan off Fifth Avenue when it was struck by a black limousine on 110th Street. A shot was fired from the back of Diamond's limousine, but Diamond was too quick to kill. He plunged down and hit the accelerator, no matter where he was going. Luckily, he managed to escape his shooters and drove himself to the nearby Mount Sinai Hospital. Doctors removed pellets from his head, face and feet, and when police questioned him, Diamond buried his body.

"I don't want that," Diamond said dimly. "Why would anyone want to shoot me? They have to get the wrong man."

He soon became friends with a Diamond gangster who didn't want to kill him. His name was "Little Augie" Orgen. Orgen placed Diamond as his main bodyguard. In return, Orgen gave Diamond a fair share of his boots and drug business. That friendship went brilliantly, until October 15, 1927, when Louis Lepke and Gurrah Shapiro shot Orgen on the corner of Norfolk and Delancey streets, with diamonds allegedly standing for the safety of Org. The diamond was shot in the arms and legs (probably by accident), necessitating another trip to the hospital. When he was released, he did a nice job with Lepke and Shapiro, and as a result, the two killers rewarded Diamond Oren's boots and the drug business for being stupid enough to go the way of Orgen's bullets.

Now Diamond was at the top of the world. He had a lot of money to throw around and became a support service in all New York City top clubs, usually with showgirl Kiki Roberts on hand, despite still being married to his other wife, Alice Kenny. Diamond was regularly seen at the Cotton Club, El Fay & Stork Club, and was often featured in newspapers where Diamond was portrayed not as a gangster, but as a handsome city man. He soon became a co-owner of the Hotsy Totsy Club, located between 54th and 55th Streets of Diamond Broadway. Hymie Cohen was her partner. The Hotsy Totsy club had a back room where Diamond often resolved business disputes, usually by shooting his opponents to death and then taking them out as if drunk.

The decline of the diamond began when on July 13, 1929, three unfair dockers got loaded and began a ruckus at the Hotsy Totsy Club Bar. Diamond jumped in with his gang member Charles Entratta to stop his manager. "I'm Jack Diamond and I run this place," Diamond told dockers. "If you don't calm down, I'll blow your (exemplary) head off."

The talking didn't work and the shooting started soon. When the smoke was cleared, two dock workers were dead and one was injured. As a result, Diamond and Entratta picked up this lamp. While hiding them, Diamond decided that the bartender and three witnesses had to be killed before he could go back for what he was doing. And soon they were. Cohen also died, and a hat check, cashier and a waiter disappeared from the ground. Diamond and Entratta calmly turned to the police and said, "I heard we were wanted for questioning." No charges were ever filed against them, but Diamond realized that New York City was no longer safe for him, which led him to close the Hotsy Totsy Club and move to New York State's Greene County in New York.

From New York State, Diamond led a small bootlegging operation. But after months of impatience, he sent the word back to the New York gangsters, namely Dutchman Schultz and Owney Madden, who, in his absence, had searched for the Diamond Rackets to return to take back what was his. This placed the target directly on Diamond's back and became known as the "underworld clay pigeon".

Diamond was sitting in a bar in Arato's inn near Arca, New York, when three men dressed as duck hunters broke into the bar and filled Diamond balls. The doctors gave him little chance of survival, but four weeks later, Diamond walked out of the hospital and told the press, "Well, I did it again. No one can kill Jack Legs Diamond."

A few months later, when Diamond left the roadside inn, four shots were fired; back, leg, lung and liver, but again he beat the odds given to him by the doctors and survived. He was not so lucky in December 1931 when, after a night of heavy drinking at the Kenmore Hotel in Albany, he drunk again in his nearby boarding house and fell asleep. After hearing three shots, he heard that he had heard Diamond praying for his life. Apparently, two gunsmiths had penetrated Diamond's room, and while one was holding him by the ears, the other had three slugs in his brain.

The killers fled Red Packard, ending the myth that Jack "Legs" Diamond was a gangster who couldn't be killed.

The stages of deregulation of US airlines

I. The Regulation

Although it was originally thought that deregulation of US carriers would increase the number of carriers whose different service concepts, market segments, fleets and route structures would have created new competition, stimulated traffic and reduced fares, it ultimately reached a full cycle with only a virtual monopoly. There were three distinct stages in this evolution.

The regulation itself dates back to 1938, when Congress passed the Civil Aviation Act. The resultant, five-member Civil Aviation Council (CAB), formed two years later in 1940, regulated, among other functions, fares, permitted routes, subsidies and approved interline contracts.

"Regulation essentially replaces the decision of a market-based regulator," argue Elizabeth E. Bailey, David R. Graham, and Daniel P. Kaplan in their book "Deregulation of Airlines" (The MIT Press, 1985, p. 96).

When the environment was so regulated, it was in fact the case that the air carrier often had to use the purchase of another carrier to obtain route authorization. For example, Delta Air Lines, which has a long-standing interest in providing direct service to New York and Florida, has consistently filed claims with CAB. But the regulatory agency found that Northeast – a small local service provider that is often plagued by traffic, financial losses and bad weather due to its route system – needed the lucrative potential of the Florida route to bring it back to health and authorized it instead.

Without fear, Delta eventually decided to acquire a regional carrier and then on 24 April 1972 approved the merger. But these extremes would no longer be needed.

A glimpse into the future could already be in California and Texas. In the absence of local air transport jurisdiction, CAB would not be able to exercise its fares or routing rights with domestic carriers or their carriers, usually providing high frequency, one class and corrosion free service at half the price charged to regulated "backbone carriers". both profit and traffic growth were continuously recorded to charge.

For example, the Los Angeles-San Francisco market airlines Air California and PSA Pacific Southwest Airlines increased their annual traffic figures from 1.5 million passengers in 1960 to 3.2 million in 1965. Texas-based Southwest Airlines provided similarly low-cost flights to Dallas and Houston and other Texas destinations. These carriers have shown that real deregulation can provide benefits to middle-income travelers, offer a wider choice of flight and service concepts, and stimulate traffic.

In the mid-1970s, both passengers and government decided to abandon regulation, citing the examples of Air California, PSA, Southwest, and other multinational airlines as verifiable evidence that deregulation can bring mutual benefits to both airlines and travelers. At least it was a theory.

Ultimately, President Jimmy Carter, a signatory to the common sense and democratic government, signed a law on airline deregulation on October 28, 1978, eliminating the need for CAB approval for entry and exit and reducing most of the current fare restrictions. Even they will eventually be abolished when the Civil Aviation Authority, at its current famous sunset, was dissolved in 1985.

At the time of the event, 11 of the then-designated backbone carriers controlled 87.2 percent of the national revenue per mile (RPM), while 12 regional, 258 commuter, five additional and four intrastats offered RPM distribution balances. What would the sky still do if the dust of deregulation was in love?

II. Deregulation

Phase One: New Generation Airlines:

As airlines from California and Texas were introduced, an increasing number of unconventional, deregulation agents initially penetrated the US market. The first, Midway Airlines, was the first to be certified after the airline liberalization law was passed, and the first to actually take up the post in 1979.

Three years earlier, Irwing Tague, the former CEO of Hughes Airwest, founded. Midway launched a low-cost, high-frequency, non-corroded "Rainbow Jet" service from low-cost Midway Airport in Chicago in November this year. the city’s only airfield until the O&Jhare was built, and Midway hoped to revive in the same way as Southwest Dallas Love Field – five single-class, 86-passenger, formerly TWA DC-9-10, initially to Cleveland, Detroit and Kansas City. This low-fare structure facilitated rapid growth and hoped to strategically penetrate the Chicago market without attracting established airlines to rabbit competition.

However, after being recruited to Midways, the author can confirm that he learned three important lessons quickly, showing that he would need to remain enormously flexible to survive in a competitive market:

Although serving the second airport in the Chicago area, it competed above all on the Chicago market.

Secondly, as dominant carriers lowered fares, their load factors dropped.

Finally, a high-density, low-cost strategy, which had become a key feature in the early stages of deregulation, was ineffective when the airline tried to cater to a specific market segment, such as the higher-yielding business sector where convenience and service were expected.

As a result, Midway changed its strategy by adding a conservative cream tint; single-class, four-tier business cab seating with increased legroom; additional cabin baggage; and upgraded free wine in-flight services in exchange for higher than Rainbow Jet fares, but those that were still below the major carriers & # 39; unlimited bus rates.

The newly implemented strategy, called "Midway Metrolink", has significantly reduced the number of airplane seats. While the DC-9-10 and -30 had accommodated 86 and 115 passengers respectively, the new Metrolink strategy redefined them for only 60 and 84 passengers.

Apparently successful, it fueled explosive growth: from an initial 56,040 passengers in 1979 to nearly 1.2 million in 1983.

The initial rapid expansion was also experienced by Capitol Air, another deregulated carrier to which the author was a participant. Founded in 1946 as Capitol Airways, it had begun domestic charter flights with Curtiss C-46 Commandos and DC-4s, eventually acquiring larger L-049 constellations and by 1950 it became the fifth largest US airline after Overseas National (ONA). ), Trans International (TIA), and Universal. It acquired the first of what was to become one of the largest used Super Constellation fleets in January 1960, eventually operating 14 L-749, L-1049G and L-1049H for a period of 14 years from 1955 to 1968.

Transported by Capitol International Airways, the charter airline delivered its first pure jet DC-8-30 in September 1963 and then operated four versions of the McDonnell-Douglas design, including the -30, -50, – Series 61 and -63, which replaced the Lockheed constellation as a workhorse for the fleet.

Upon receiving the planned mandate in September 1978, Capitol opened the New York-Brussels route on 5 May the following year and the second Chicago / Boston-Brussels transatlantic sector on 19 June. Like PSA and Southwest, Capitol Air, a former incremental airline, was not regulated by CAB and therefore conducted its "deregulation experiment", sublimating one class of high-density, unrestricted and even standby charter economy to regular mile and profitability.

The planned concept, called "Sky Saver Service", consistently attracted overcapacity and significantly increased fleet and en route expansion. Operated by New York-JFK hub by 1982, six DC-8-61, five DC-8-63, and five DC-10-10 devices to seven US domestic, three Caribbean, and three European destinations attracted an ever-expanding passenger base: 611 400 passengers in 1980, 1,150,000 in 1981, and 1,824,000 in 1982.

Passengers unaware of the deregulation airlines, whose low fares could only be profitable with second-hand aircraft, dense seating and low-wage employees, often criticized Capitol Air's non-smoking policy and refusal to provide food. and hotel rooms in case of delays and compensation in the event of missed flights by other airlines. However, its ticket prices on the New York-Los Angeles market ranged from unlimited $ 149 round-trip to $ 189 one-way, while the majors' & # 39; unlimited tariffs in the market were hovering around the $ 450 mark. As a result, Capitol Air's load factor exceeded 90 percent.

By September 1981, ten new carriers had received certificates of release to service and a service had been opened.

"The first consequences of deregulation were dramatic," Anthony Sampson wrote in Empires of the Sky: World Airlines Politics, Competitions and Cartels (Random House, 1984, p. 136). "New types of airlines saw the opportunity to expand small businesses or set up high-speed airlines that could lower fares on local routes; they could give up big business superstructure and bureaucracy, and use their flexibility to hit giants to their weakest spots where they could quickly return."

Four types of aircraft emerged which had a significant initial impact on the traditionally regulated aircraft industry.

The first were deregulation appearances like Air Atlanta, Air Florida, Air One, Altair, America West, Best, Carnival, Empire, Florida Express, Frontier Horizon, Jet America, Midway, Midwest Express, MGM Grand Air, Morris Air, Muse Air , New York Air, Northeastern International, Pacific East Air, Pacific Express, PEOPLExpress, Presidential, Reno Air, SunJet International, The Hawaii Express and ValuJet.

Others were local service providers maturing at the time of deregulation, including Allegheny, Frontier, Hughes Airwest, Central North, Ozark, Piedmont, Southern and Texas International, which quickly outperformed their former geographic concentration by regulation.

The third, cross-border multinational airlines, included companies such as Air California (later AirCal), Alaska, Aloha, Hawaii, PSA, Southwest and Wien Air Alaska.

The fourth was charter amended by deregulation, such as Capitol Air, Trans International (later Transamerica) and World Airways.

While some of these carriers, in particular Air One and MGM Grand Air, targeted very specific niche markets in the provision of critical seating and services, the vast majority – whether deregulated by spawning, rearing or maturation – achieved profitability (or sought to achieve) including, of course, low, unlimited fares, single hub, short and medium range routing systems, high density seating, limited on-board service, lower-wage labor and mid-scale labor; medium-capacity tripods such as 727; and small-volume low power twin tips such as BAC-111, DC-9, 737, and F.28.

Everybody achieved a high load factor, generated tremendous traffic in existing and emerging markets, and created significant competition.

"In this regard," Barbara Sturken Peterson and James Glab wrote in their book "Rapid Descent: Deregulation and Shakeout in the Airlines" (Simon and Schuster, 1994, p. 307), "deregulation worked like a charm."

Phase Two: Monopoly:

While established, traditionally regulated, major carriers temporarily lowered fares in concentrated markets for selected high-deregulated carriers to maintain their passenger base, well-established and protected regulatory carriers were not built to operate profitably. Even in cases where they succeeded in removing competition from the market, yet another low tide of tide seemed to be waiting in the wings to fill the void.

As a result, incumbent carriers had to choose between giving up scarce markets or cutting funds to hold passengers until they went bankrupt themselves. It quickly became clear that the deregulation fare would become a permanent element of the "new" unregulated airline, and eventually the larger airlines discovered that they had to fundamentally restructure or surrender to new types of airline. Almost every aspect of their activities would change.

The first objective was the route system. These routing systems, which consisted of a traditionally offline service, which began with the CAB route authorizations in 1940 and 1950, did not in fact contain any intrinsic "system" and consisted of unbalanced geographical coverage resulting in lost revenue. other carriers and inefficient and inefficient use of existing fleets. What was really needed was a centralized "collection point" for self-assembly.

As a result of bilateral agreements, European airlines actually operated the first hubs, directing passengers from Copenhagen to Athens, for example, via an intermediate hub, such as Dusseldorf. All passengers flying into the Copenhagen-Düsseldorf or Athens-Düsseldorf sectors could theoretically switch to any of the airline's off-board aircraft spokes, significantly increasing the number of markets served. These hubs in the European capital also showed greater aircraft utilization, better traffic flow, a larger market base than traditional direct services based solely on originating and destination traffic could have supported and retention of connecting passengers.

"While travelers prefer frequent offline service, such a service can be quite expensive," said Bailey, Graham and Kaplan (p. 74). "Airlines thus face strong incentives to create air transport … By combining passengers of different origins and destinations, an airline can increase average passenger per flight and thereby reduce costs. In essence, larger-scale carriers take advantage of economies of scale on airplanes. more convenient service for travelers in less traveled markets. "

The first US hub dates back to the 1940s, when the southern government gave Delta some profitable long-distance routes in exchange for agreeing to serve several Atlanta communities.

"All of these routes became 'spokes' that led to the Atlanta Delta hub," said Peterson and Glab (p. 120). "There was a significant advantage in detaining passengers."

Allegheny, formerly a Pittsburgh-based local service provider with no distinctive long-distance development plan, registered significant progress on its eastern and mid-Atlantic route network, which had gradually "developed" due to southern Pennsylvania. By increasing the balance of its predominantly business and small public itinerary system with longer-term leisure destinations, it was able to further boost this development, and by 1978 it had 73 percent of its passengers in the Community. By 1981, the figure had risen to 89 percent, meaning that 89 percent of those flying to Philadelphia and Pittsburgh did not fly to Philadelphia and Pittsburgh.

Delta and Allegheny hubs were just the beginning of the phenomenon, as the concept helped more than create a concentration of airlines in a particular city. Instead, it led to a final monopolistic strangulation that ruled out any competition.

For example, at four major US hubs (Atlanta, Chicago-O & Hare, Dallas-Ft. Worth and Denver), "the two largest airlines have simply squeezed out or made it virtually impossible for other carriers to expand and gain market share," wrote Julius Maldutis in the 50 At a US airport after deregulation (Salomon Brothers, Inc., 1987, p. 4).

In Atlanta, where both Delta and Eastern sites were once hubs, any possibility of significant competition for third-party operators was eliminated. For example, in 1978, the percentage of Delta and East hub traffic was 49.65 and 39.17 percent, but nine years later, the figure had risen to 52.51 and 42.24 percent.

An analysis of the 50 largest airports (which accounted for 81.1 percent of US airline passengers' airworthiness) showed that only ten of these airports could be considered as less concentrated. On the other hand, 40 (or 80 percent) of the airports were too concentrated. The ten most concentrated airports had one airline with a market share of more than 66%.

St. In Louis, where both TWA and Ozark were hubs, the first had a market share of 39.06 percent, while the second had a market share of 20.21 percent in 1978. In 1986, the respective figures increased to 63.16 and 19.68 percent, respectively. The following year, after TWA acquired its only other significant competitor, Ozark, it sold its stake to 82.34 percent, with the remaining nine US domestic airlines sharing the remaining 17.66 percent. The airline's listing of all airlines operating between New York's three major airports on December 1, 1995, revealed 27 flights that day. None of them were operated by a carrier other than TWA! It was power.

Similarly, Piedmont, a ripe deregulation, which in 1977 only gained a 10.19% market share in Charlotte, North Carolina, decommissioned a monopoly of 87.87% ten years after it established a center there. The same transformation took place in Pittsburgh with Allegheny / USAir / US Airways – 43.65 percent in 1977 and 82.83 percent in 1987.

"Because a large portion of the market for urban couples cannot support convenient offline service, rhythm operations have proven to be the dominant strategy of airlines since deregulation," wrote Bailey, Graham and Kaplan (p. 196). "There has been a significant shift in the regulatory vision of linear systems and solar path eruptions."

In addition to the distribution concept, the main carriers underwent a number of other fundamental changes. For example, aircraft were reconfigured for higher density and, in some cases, single-class seating, while commercial cabins increased first-class and bus sections on selected routes; first class cabins were later completely replaced by business class cabins, following a trend launched by some niche airline deregulation carriers.

Fuel-efficient aircraft types were gradually replaced by new-generation designs, and daily use increased from 8.6 hours in 1971 to 10.3 hours in 1979. In the 1970s and early 1980s, the average size of aircraft in remote sectors increased, while in the late 1980s. In the early 1990s, clean jet technology penetrated every market for the first time, from 50 to 500 passengers between mainland continents.

Employment was also distorted. Robert Crandall, former chairman and chief executive of American Airlines, said "deregulation is deeply anti-labor … riches have been tremendously transferred from airline employees to air travelers."

Canceled airlines & # 39; the lowering of fares resulted in lower revenue and profit bases, which would allow funds to be redistributed to traditionally high wages and compensation packages, thus requiring increased labor productivity, cross-utilization, part-time work, joining and profit sharing. In some cases, employment was provided by contracted groundhandling companies to reduce the indemnity compensation. The author was involved in a groundhandling company's initial experiment at JFK International Airport between the triangular aviation services and Royal Jordanian Airlines.

"A relatively new but rapidly evolving concept provides service company employees on a contractual basis to a specific carrier who is suited to the career of an airport-based airline (Hicksville, New York, 1995, p. 9)." The service company then hires staff, runs training programs (if any) and hourly pay and benefits package. "

Wearing Jordan's royal uniform and performing all the ground-based functions, I often felt "centered" while trying to please the passenger as well as the airline. After all, they were both my clients, exposing the concept's intrinsic conflict.

Reduced airline salaries and allowances allow their origin to actually be traced back to Crandall, who developed an employment cost reduction scheme with a "B-scale" payment scheme that offered newly hired workers initially lower wages and required them to accumulate more longevity before they could. to achieve a higher A-level.

"The American (himself) was ready for huge growth and had a strong incentive to do so," said Peterson and Glab (p. 136). "The more it expanded, the more employees it would hire – with lower B-wages – and the more its average costs would go down."

According to Bailey, Graham and Kaplan, deregulation of an airline created financial and indemnity compensation above the industry standard. "It is now clear that inflexible rules of work and higher than competitive wages flourished during regulation. It appears that airline employees have benefited significantly from the CAB defensive regulation." (page 197)

Another need for deregulation was the increasing reliance on automation. American Airlines, again under the leadership of Crandall, created the first computerized airline booking system, SABER, immediately followed by the American Apollo System. As powerful sales tools, these automated systems were bought by travel agents, who paid the owners different fees for each booking they made, while smaller carriers had to negotiate representation.

These systems became so complex and complex that their information was gradually sublimated through every aspect of the airline, using their "booking modes", providing bookings, itineraries, fares, hotel, travel and land transportation reservations, often flight tracking and ticketing; their exit control systems (DCS) providing passenger registration and boarding passes; and their "Control Modes", using this information to produce aircraft weight and balance and load plan and loading list.

Only through these sophisticated airline reservation systems did carriers manage to implement yield management programs, that is, to determine the optimal balance between low fares and profitable high fares based on seasonality, departure and demand. , comfort, capacity and competition for a profitable flight. For example, on December 1, 1995, an airline booking system consultancy listed 27 separate fares between New York and Los Angeles, that is, through American Airlines, from unlimited $ 1 741.82 one-way fares to $ 226.36 limited return flights. trainer fare. The codes in the "Price Base" column, such as "KPE7HOLN", were accessed to expose the limitations of each – the printout spanned multiple pages!

Another major change in the deregulated industry was the structure and relationship of both regional and commuter migrants to the majors. Because of the sometimes cyclical nature of the history, local service carriers once abandoned small communities on low density routes, once again acquiring a clean jet, but now with two major differences:. Today 's regional areas were never limited by these routes to the regulation, and. Although their own airplanes expanded rapidly, they sought to coexist with major companies in code-sharing agreements, rather than compete where their planes were in high resemblance and their flights carried an affiliate. s two-letter codes.

Of the 300 destinations served by Delta in the second half of 1995, for example, 85 of those 85 reached one of its four Delta Connection code distributors, including Atlantic Southeast Airlines (ASA), Business Express, Comair, and Skywest only – the first of which had to procure equipment with a clean jet engine at that time. American externally bought its shuttle trains and jointly called them "American Eagle".

However, the main carriers are & # 39; deregulation-related restructuring was complete.

When TWA matched Capitol Air with unrestricted intercontinental bus fares, the former additional 30 passengers booked their DC-8-61 aircraft, which would otherwise accommodate 252, and canceled their flights. In a similar situation, the Buffalo-Newark market, between August 1981 and June 1982, analyzed the established and rising PEOPLExpress load factors in the United States, which consistently reported those that were at least 20 points lower.

"Data suggests that many consumers have opted for travel with a greater degree of name recognition and convenience at the same price," continued Bailey, Graham, and Kaplan (p. 106).

Competition eventually forced Capitol Air to adjust its route system to cover an increasing number of ethnic and low-served markets, until the majors also penetrated the area and the carrier had no choice but to apply for Chapter 11 bankruptcy protection by winding down. November 25, 1984.

Midway faced opposition from major carriers. Whatever the strategy they used to determine their optimal niche, they were always aggressive against major companies. For example, when it acquired Air Florida in 1984, it configured its planes with two class seats, but as it traveled on both sides of the belt, it soon returned to the single class concept and again in November 1989 to the two class class. one, by then, operated an 82-member fleet with its "Midway Connection" and carried 5.2 million passengers a year.

But excessive expansion and the attempt to replace Philadelphia's hub in the East during a poor financial year in direct competition with the United States led to its death two years later, on November 13.

"While these numerous strategies pointed to a constant reassessment of their proper course, they also indicated market instability in deregulated airspace and the airline's determination to stay within them, Hicksville, New York, 1991, p. 59).

Capitol Air and Midway were just two examples of deregulated maturity carriers that surrendered to radically restructured major companies. Indeed, at the end of 1995, only one of the 100 airlines certified after the airline deregulation law was operating – America West.

"(The major airlines) implemented a strategy whereby they could beat their fare competition by expanding and applying comparable fares aggressively, despite the heavy losses on certain routes, all in order to maintain – or in some cases – regain market share. Larger airlines grew powerful and monopolistic, losing competition wherever it appeared, "said the Austrian Airlines Handbook of Passenger Handling (Hicksville, New York, 1990, pp. 10-11).

Step Three: Megacarrier:

The expansion of the airline as it began to move seemed self-propelled and resisted inertia. By definition, monopolies have no borders. The next logical step was to penetrate the foreign market.

In contrast to domestic US growth, "it was much more difficult for a US carrier to gain access to a new foreign market than a new domestic one because international air services were still strictly governed by bilateral agreements between US and foreign governments," wrote Peterson and Glab (p. 283). "… In order to obtain immediate foreign operation, a US airline had to purchase the route administration from another US airline."

We recall that this phenomenon was a virtual replication of US internal governance before deregulation. In the latter case, such a purchase would normally only be made if the airline owning the airline was in financial difficulty and if the revenue generated by the sales revenue remained viable.

Pan Am, particularly affected by the effects of deregulation, was forced to sell its lucrative Pacific division, along with aircraft and ground facilities, to United for $ 750 million to stay afloat. United, already a large financially sound airline at the time, now had a worldwide route network with decent domestic bait.

More important than sales, however, was its far-reaching impact. "United Airlines ostis Pan Am & # 39; i Vaikse ookeani divisjoni eesmärgiga saavutada doominoefekt," jätkasid Peterson ja Glab (lk 148). "Paljud lennuettevõtjad olid ärevuses uue konkurentsi ees, eriti nende loodeosas, mis oli vastu riigi suurim lennufirma, mis liigub oma Vaikse ookeani turbale. Loode teadis, et tal on vaja märkimisväärselt suuremat omamaist kodumaist võrku ja kiireim viis selle saamiseks on ühinemise teel. "

1986. aasta lõpuks oli ta just seda teinud, omandades vabariigi, mis ise oli moodustatud Põhja-Lõuna-Lõuna ühinemisest 1979. aastal ja Hughes Airwesti teisest omandamisest 1980. aastal, ning strateegia autasustas Loodet monopoolse staatusega kõigis selle sõlmpunktides. , näiteks Minneapolis, turuosaga 81,55 protsenti.

Delta, fearing it would be unable to compete with airlines of such magnitude, acquired Western Airlines for $860 million in September of 1986, in the process obtaining a coast-to-coast route structure and new hubs in Salt Lake City and Los Angeles.

The already described TWA-Ozark merger produced such a lock on St. Louis that it controlled three-quarters of all gates and was able to assess much higher fares in those markets where there was no competition.

In fact, these mergers only served to tighten a carrier's already almost unrelenting grip on a particular hub. Deregulation-spawned Empire, for instance-a rapidly-expanding New York State Fokker F.28 Fellowship operator-adopted a Syracuse hub and recorded an initial 1979 market share of just.75 percent, but this exponentially increased to 27.36 percent in 1985 when Piedmont acquired the growing regional. Two years later, its market share climbed to 39.82 percent. However, when USAir in turn purchased Piedmont, the Syracuse hub lock skyrocketed to over 61 percent.

Perhaps the most encompassing (and disjointed) merger was that between PEOPLExpress and Continental, which itself had already been the result of an amalgamation between the original, pre-deregulation Continental, Texas International, and New York Air. PEOPLExpress had equally already absorbed Denver-based Frontier. Texas Air, owner of the new conglomerate, also acquired Eastern, but retained its separate identity.

All these mergers, consummated during the latter half of 1986, unequivocally produced the "megacarrier."

"Deregulation's theme, echoing Darwinian philosophy, clearly demonstrated itself to be 'survival of the fittest,' which, for the airlines, translated as 'survival of the largest,' according to the Austrian Airlines Passenger Service Manual-JFK (p. 10). "If the long-established major carriers… wished to survive and maintain the markets they had so carefully nurtured during regulation, they would somehow have to implement a strategy which would ensure that they would remain 'large.'"

The major airlines' fundamental restructuring, beginning with monopoly and ending with megacarrier, constituted that strategy, as carriers tracing their origins to the infantile days of aviation and bearing names virtually synonymous with the industry fell like a string of acquisition-induced dominoes. By 1995 only seven US megacarriers remained, including American, Continental, Delta, Northwest, TWA, United, and USAir, along with two significant majors-America West and Southwest-a few "niche" airlines, and the regional-commuters which were almost exclusively aligned with one of the megacarriers or majors through code-share agreements.

Even these names disappeared early in the 21st century. Like brides and grooms walking down a monopoly-destined aisle, Delta married Northwest, United took Continental as its lawfully wedded, American joined arms with US Airways, and Southwest tied the knot with AirTran.

III. Conclusion

Although the examples set by Air California, PSA, and Southwest had indicated that a deregulated environment would ultimately prove to be mutually advantageous to both the operating airline and the passenger, these experiments failed to approximate actual conditions, since the rest of the US airline industry was still regulated and these fledgling airlines had therefore been insulated from major-carrier competition. Lacking the authority, cost structure, and equipment, they had been unable to launch comparable service of their own.

The initial proliferation of small, low-fare, no-frills, non-unionized deregulation-spawned, -bred, and -transformed airlines provided tremendous airline-, fare-, and service concept-choice only until the major carriers implemented their fundamental route system, aircraft, employment, computerized reservation system, and regional airline affiliation restructuring, reversing the expansion phase into one of buyout, merger, bankruptcy, retrenchment, consolidation, monopoly, and, ultimately, megacarrier. The upstarts, having lacked the majors' name recognition, financial strength, frequent flier marketing tools, and size, invariably succumbed, leaving most of the original dominant airlines, although in greatly modified form, until even these surrendered to prevailing forces. US airline deregulation had thus come full cycle.

Mobsters – Big Bill Dwyer – King of Runners

As a simple docker, he melted heavily and was known as the "King of Rummy Runners". Big Bill Dwyer made so much money by partnering with famous gangsters at several crazy New York nightclubs. Dwyer also owned two professional hockey teams, including New York Americans, and was the owner of the Brooklyn Dodgers football team. Finally, when Big Bill Dwyer died, he died out of the limelight and the apartment broke.

William Vincent Dwyer was born in 1883 in the Hells kitchen area in western New York. Two gangs, the Hudson Dusters and the Gophers, dominated Hell's kitchen at the time, but Dwyer avoided joining both gangs and instead took to the Dock as a stevedore of the International Long Range Union (ILU). ).

While working on the docks, Dwyer started his betting operation. Following the entry into force in 1911 of the Wolves law prohibiting the distribution of alcohol and making money by betting, Dwyer branched out into the German wage business. Dwyer bought a steel speedboat with the vehicle, all fitted with a machine gun, in case the rogue tried to hijack the shipment. Dwyer also bought several large hub-powered boats needed to load an illegal barge from any boat.

Dwyer traveled to Canada, England and the Caribbean to establish relationships with those who sold him the liquor he needed to smuggle in the United States. Then Dwyer set up a system whereby his ships met along the sea several miles from the ships that supplied him with liquor. There, the boats were taken to Dwyer ships, then quickly transported to Dwyer high-speed vessels closer to New York's shore.

The speedboats were unloaded in the docks protected by ILU local 791, of which Dwyer was a member. From the docks, the liqueur was taken to several warehouses in the New York area. When the time was right, the trucks carried booze protected by illegal alcohol and convoy crews throughout the country: heavy shipments to St. Petersburg, Florida. To Louis, Kansas City, Cincinnati and as far away as New Orleans.

Dwyer was able to smuggle a lot of booze into New York because he knew one simple fact: if you wanted to be successful in boot business, you had to bribe the police and the Coast Guard. And so did Dwyer, handing over thousands of dollars that needed lubrication.

Paying the New York cops was easy. Occasionally there were few police officers who had no access to grafting money. But Dwyer was particularly adept at recruiting Coast Guard members to look the other way as his high-speed craft entered New York waters.

Dwyer's first contact was with Coast Guard Officer Olsen. Through Olsen, Dwyer met with a number of coast guards, calling them "guards" who might be willing to bribe. Dwyer would take those Guardsmen to the bright lights of New York, where he would feed them richly and dine, take them to Broadway shows, and even get them a gorgeous hotel room, occupied by their chosen girl, for whom Dwyer would pay. ka. When Dwyer was bribed by the Guards, he was told he could earn hundreds and sometimes thousands of dollars more than he could employ to protect Dwyer's shipments.

Soon, Dwyer made so much money through bootlegging that he was considered the largest distributor of illegal alcohol in the United States. But Dwyer had one huge problem that he needed help solving. Every time one of his trucks left New York to spread booze to other parts of the country, they were vulnerable to hundreds of hijackers operating throughout the country. Dwyer knew to stop it, he had to bring along partners – Italian mob members and Jewish mobs. As he made millions in profits, Dwyer did not bother about it and could certainly afford to share his wealth. The problem was, Dwyer didn't just consider himself a businessman and wasn't a gangster himself. Dwyer needed someone in the underworld to get the contacts Dwyer needed to continue his business without fear of being hijacked.

Almost accidentally, this person fell directly on Dwyer's lap. In 1924, two shipments of Dwyer were hijacked in New York State. Dwyer relied on his salaried cops to find out who was responsible for the hijacking. Soon Dwyer came back saying that the abductor detainee was an Irishman, Owney Madden, who had grown up in Liverpool, England, before emigrating to New York as a teenager. Madden was a vicious con nicknamed "The Killer" and had once ruled the murderous Gopher gang in the kitchen of Hell.

Dwyer paid all he needed to pay back the charges against Madden, "Get me Owney Madden. I want to talk to him. I've got a business proposal that we need to discuss."

Madden received the word of his benefactor and was expected to meet Dwyer in return. Two men met at Dwyer's office in Loew State House in Times Square. There are no recordings or transcripts of this meeting, but TJ English told Paddy Whacked, the Irish gangster masterpiece, that the conversation between Madden and Dwyer could have gone something like this:

"You have a problem," Madden would have told Dwyer. "Gangsters have gotten them off your trucks like sitting ducks and what are you doing with it?"

"That's why I invited you here."

"You have to arrange shooters and cherry pickers, not to mention bulls (cops) and bolts (politicians)."

"You are right. I need to stop the hijacking. I need a place where I can brew my own home. A shelter for the tiger and the cops. And I need outlets – talk, nightclubs, you name it."

"You need a lot, my friend.

"Are you with me?"

"Give me one reason why."

"I can make you rich."

"Pal, you and I are two peas in a pot."

And that was the start of the New York Irish Mob, which would then connect with Italian and Jewish mobs to control bootlegging business throughout the United States. The grouping of the three ethnic groups was known as "Combine".

Along with Dwyer's millions, Madden watched the establishment of a Phoenix-based grain beverage company on 26th Street and 10th Avenue, right in the heart of Hell's Kitchen, where both Madden and Dwyer had grown up. This red brick building, which covered the entire block, was originally the Clausen & Flanagan brewery, which was set up to produce and sell beer that no true brewer will ever miss. Beer made in Phoenix was called Madden # 1.

Because Dwyer was primarily a behind-the-scenes moneymaker, Madden became an architect who created and nourished their empire. Madden brought former taxi owner Larry Fay to several men who needed to sell Madden's No. 1, in addition to a number of high-end establishments, plus all the scotch, rum, vodka, cognac and champagne the smuggler brought in. city. One of these locations was El Fay at 107 West 54th Street.

El Fay's main attraction was Texas Guinan, an obscene cabaret singer / comedian who was later copied by May West. To attract Guinan to work in El Fay, Madden and Dwyer made a partner from Guinan. Guinan was famous for his crackers, which he wound out between the clips or holes in the whistle as he sat in the main room on a high stool. Guinan's signature statement was "Hello Sucker". So he welcomed all El Fay customers in good health.

As the singer or dancer ended her performance at El Fey, Guinan admonished the crowd: "Give the little lady a great big hand!"

One day, El Fey was attacked by a supporter who couldn't be bought by Madden or Dwyer. He marched to Guinan, put a hand on his shoulder, and said to his fellow agent, "Give the little lady a great big handcuff."

Dwyer did what he did best, Guinan was released from prison, and El Fey soon jumped again, really making everyone very rich.

Madden and Dwyer also partnered with former bootlegger Sherman Billingsley at the very fashionable Stork Club East-53. on the street. Two Irish gangsters spread their wings in northern Manhattan when they bought Club De Luxe from former heavyweight boxer Jack Johnson. They added Big Frenchy De Mange as their operating partner and changed their name to a cotton club. At the Cotton Club, De Mange established an "Only White" admissions policy despite waiters, dancers and keynote speakers like Cab Calloway, Duke Ellington, Louis Armstrong, Lena Horne, Bill "Bojangles" Robinson and Nicholas. Brothers, they were all black.

Nevertheless, the Cotton Club was wildly successful with downtown big spenders putting tons of cash in Dwyer and Madden's pockets.

In 1925, Dwyer was arrested for attempting to bribe members of the Coast Guard during a needle operation led by the Prohibition Authority. Dwyer was sentenced to two years' imprisonment, but was released after 13 months for good behavior. Since Dwyer was wiping, Frank Costello took over Dwyer's bootlegging business.

While in prison, Dwyer said desperately to one of his roommates. "I wish I had never seen a whiskey case. I spent years of my life in daily fear, always waiting for me to be arrested, always dealing with scams and double cuts, and now look at me. My wife is heartbroken and worse than broken."

As we see, this was not really the truth.

When Dwyer hit the streets again, he withdrew from bootlegging business, leaving the rum operation to Costello and Madden. As time went on, Dwyer began investing in legitimate business, especially sports teams.

In 1926, boxing professor Tex Rickard called on Dwyer to buy the National Hockey League's Hamilton Tigers. Dwyer did so, and he moved his team to the New York Madison Square Garden and renamed them New York Americans. As clever as Dwyer was in running a boot trade company, he was just as foolish as running a hockey team. With his cash-strapped pockets, Dwyer's winning strategy was basically overpaying for everyone on the team. As the average hockey player earned between $ 1,500 and $ 2,000 a year, Dwyer gave Billy Burch a three-year, $ 25,000 contract. Shorty Green also gained a huge boost when Dwyer signed a $ 5,000 annual contract with him.

Being an old scam, Dwyer took an active part in leading his team, even going so far as to try to play games. Dwyer paid the goalkeepers his team to score when the pendant simply touched the goal line instead of passing through the goal line completely, which was the rule.

During a game in the Madison Square Garden in 1927, the goalkeeper, who had Dwyer in his pocket, began to chase Ottawa goalkeeper Alex Connell for some reason. Connell replied by pushing his hockey stick into the goalie's nose. Dwyer was inspired by the actions of the Ottawa goalkeeper (you can't handle one of Dwyer's staff) and Connell was told to leave town soon after the game. The police unit took Connell to the train station and protected him until the train was safely out of town. After leaving the train station, the man asked Connella if he was Alex Connell, the Ottawa goalkeeper. Connell feared for his life, said a stranger no. And as a result, he became the goalkeeper for other hockey games.

Removing the league rule of not having two hockey teams, Dwyer bought the NHL Pittsburgh Pirates in 1929, using former lightweight boxing champion Benny Leonard as his chairman. In 1930, Dwyer also put his fisted fingers on the newly created National Football League, buying Dayton triangles for $ 2,500. Dwyer moved the team to Ebbets Field in Brooklyn and renamed them the Brooklyn Dodgers.

Over three years, Dwyer started losing so much money by overpaying all his players that he sold the Brooklyn Dodgers to two former New York giant footballers, Chris Cagle and John Simms for $ 25,000. Although he sold the team ten times what he had paid, Dwyer said he still valued the team for $ 30,000 over three years.

In 1934, when he filled American sports teams (he still owned New York Americans, but they were bleeding money), Dwyer bought the famous Tropical Park horse racing track in Miami, Florida.

But Dwyer fell on the roof when he was accused of gambling in 1935. Dwyer beat the case, but then the government did to him what they did to Al Capone: they beat him on charges of tax evasion. These accusations stalled and Dwyer was seized of all his property, except the New York Americans, and a house in Belle Harbor, Queens. Almost effortlessly, Dwyer had no more money to stay afloat in New York.

In 1937, the National Hockey League temporarily took control of New York Americans. To show the NHL that it was financially solvent, Dwyer borrowed $ 20,000 from Red Dutton. Instead of paying his team salary, Dwyer decided to try to multiply his money in craps. It didn't go too well when Dwyer broke out and lost all twenty big ones. As the NHL was unable to pay its team and no longer raise capital, the NHL finally opened up Dwyer and took control of the New York Americans. Broken and desperate, Dwyer went home to her Belle Harbor.

On December 10, 1943, Big Bill Dwyer, the "King of Rummers", died at the age of 63. Dwyer was allegedly troubled at the time of his death. His only property was a roof over his head.

Types and characteristics of restaurants

Broadly speaking, restaurants can be divided into several categories:
1- chain or indy and franchise restaurants. McDonald's, Union Square Cafe, or KFC
2 – Quick Service (QSR), sandwich. Burger, chicken and so on; convenience store, noodles, pizza
3 – Fast random. Panera Bread, Atlanta Bread Company, Au Bon Pain, etc.
4- Family. Bob Evans, Perkins, friendly company, Steak Shake, waffle house
5- random. Applebee, Hard Rock Caf, Chili, TGI Friday
6- Fine dining. Charlie Trotter, Morton Steakhouse, Flemming, Palm, four seasons
7- Other. Steakhouses, Seafood, Ethnic, Dinner, Celebrities, etc. Of course, some restaurants fall into several categories. For example, an Italian restaurant may be casual and ethnic. Leading restaurant concepts in terms of sales have been followed for years by the Restaurants and

The impression that the restaurant business is completely dominated by a few gigantic fast service chains is misleading. Chain restaurants have some advantages and disadvantages compared to independent restaurants. Advantages include:

1- Market Recognition
2 – Increased advertising impact
3- complex systems development
4- Discount Shopping

Various types of assistance are available during the franchise. Independent restaurants are relatively easy to open. All you need is a couple of thousand dollars, knowledge of restaurant operations and a strong desire
succeeds. The advantage of independent restaurateurs is that they can & # 39; & # 39; do your own thing & # 39; & # 39; concept development, menus, designs, etc. Unless our habits and tastes change drastically, there is plenty of room for independent restaurants in some places. Restaurants come and go. Some independent restaurants grow into small chains and larger companies outsource small chains.

Once small chains have shown growth and popularity, they are likely to be bought out by a larger company or will be able to finance expansion. It is tempting for a budding restaurateur to follow the big restaurants in big cities and believe that their success can be duplicated in other cities. Reading reviews of restaurants in New York, Las Vegas, Los Angeles, Chicago, Washington, and San Francisco, one might get the impression that unusual restaurants can be replicated in Des Moines, Kansas City, or Main Town, US. Demographic data prevents these stylish or ethnic restaurants from clicking in small towns.

5 – Bottom to bottom training and covers all areas of the restaurant. Franchising involves the least financial risk, as the restaurant's format, including building design, menu and marketing plans, has already been market tested. Franchise restaurants are less likely to open up than independent restaurants. The reason is that the concept is proven and working procedures are established with all (or most) of the developed Kinks. Training is provided and marketing and management support is available. However, the increased likelihood of success is not cheap.

There are franchise fees, royalties, advertising fees and significant net worth claims. For those with no significant restaurant experience, franchising can be a way to start a restaurant business if they are ready to start from the bottom and complete a crash course. Restaurant franchisees are entrepreneurs who prefer to own, manage, develop and expand an existing business concept using a contractual business arrangement called this franchise.1 Multiple franchises have completed several stores and done a great deal of time. Of course, most aspiring restaurateurs want to do their own thing – they have a point and can't wait to find it.

Here are some examples of franchise costs:

1- $ 30,000 at a traditional Miami Subs traditional restaurant, 4.5 percent royalty, and requires at least five years & # 39; experience as a multi-unit operator, $ 1 million in personal / business equity and as a personal / business
net worth $ 5 million.

2- Chili requires a monthly fee based on the restaurant's sales (currently 4 percent of monthly sales) plus a (a) monthly rent or (b) a rent greater than at least 8.5 percent of monthly sales.

3- McDonald requires $ 200,000 in unpaid personal resources and a starting fee of $ 45,000 plus a monthly service fee based on restaurant sales (about 4 percent) and rent
monthly base rent or percentage of monthly sales. Equipment and opening costs range from $ 461,000 to $ 788,500.

4- The pizza factory express units (200-999 square feet) charge $ 5,000 in franchise fees, 5 percent royalty and 2 percent advertising. Equipment costs range from $ 25,000 to $ 90,000, miscellaneous costs from $ 3,200 to $ 9,000, and opening inventory $ 6,000.

5- The Earl of Sandwich has options at a net worth requirement of $ 750,000 and a liquidity of $ 300,000; 5 units requires $ million in net worth and $ 500,000 in liquidity; 10 units, net worth
$ 2 million and liquidity $ 800,000. The franchise fee is $ 25,000 per location and the usage fee is 6 percent.

What do you get for this money? Franchisors offer:

1- Help with choosing a site and reviewing all the sites it offers
2 – assistance in designing and preparation of construction
3 – help with preparation for unlocking
4- Training for managers and employees
5- Designing and implementing pre-opening marketing strategies
6- Unit visits and ongoing counseling

There are hundreds of restaurant franchise concepts and these are not risks. A restaurant owned or rented by a franchisee can fail, even if it is part of a well-known chain that is very successful. Franchisors also fail. An example is the highly regarded Boston market, located in Colorado Golden. In 1993, when the company's shares were first offered to the public at a price of $ 20 per share, it was bought enthusiastically, raising the price to a high of $ 50 a share. After the company was declared bankrupt, the share price fell to 75 cents in 1999. The content of many of its stores was sold at auction
a fraction of their cost.7 The fortunes were made and lost. One group that did not lose was the investment bankers who put together and sold the stock offerings and received a great reward for their services.

The bidding group also did well; they were able to sell their shares when the shares were large. Fast-food chains, known as Hardee and Carl Jr., have also undergone red ink. Both companies, now under the name of one owner, CKE, experienced four-year periods when the company's real profits were negative. (However, during the sales periods of individual stores, business-owned or franchised dealers, things may have gone well.) There is no certainty that the franchised chain is booming.

At one time in Farmington Hills, Michigan, in the mid-1970s, A&W Restaurants had an Inc. 2400 units. In 1995, the chain numbered more than 600. After the redemption that year, the chain expanded by 400 stores. Some expansions took place in non-traditional locations, such as kiosks, truck stops, colleges and convenience stores, where the experience of a full-service restaurant is irrelevant. The restaurant concept may work well in one area but not in another. The working style can be very compatible with the personality of one operator and not the other.

Most franchised operations require a lot of hard work and long hours that many people perceive as fraudulent. If the franchisee does not have enough capital and leases the building or land, there is a risk of paying more for the rent than the company can support. The relationship between franchisors and franchisees is often strained, even in larger companies. The goals of both are usually different; franchisors want maximum fees, while franchisees want maximum support in marketing and providing franchise services, such as employee training. Sometimes franchise chains are involved in litigation with their franchisees.

As franchisees have established hundreds of franchises throughout America, some regions are saturated: there are more franchise practices that the region can support. Current franchise owners complain that the addition of franchises will only help to reduce the sales of existing stores. For example, Pizza Hut stopped selling
franchises, except for well-heeled buyers, who can take many units. Overseas markets are a major source of revenue for several high-speed service chains. As expected, McDonald has led overseas expansion with units in 119 countries.

With about 30,000 restaurants serving about 50 million customers a day, about half of the company's profits come from outside the United States. Many other high-speed service chains also have many franchise companies overseas. While a budding restaurateur rightly focuses on a successful venture here and now, many bright, ambitious and energetic restaurateurs are thinking about future opportunities abroad. Once the concept has been developed, the entrepreneur can sell to the franchisor or use a lot of guidance through the franchise abroad format. (Buying or buying abroad is silly without a partner who is financially insured and knowledgeable of local laws and culture.)

McDonald's success story in the US and abroad illustrates the importance of adapting to local conditions. The company opens units in unlikely locations and closes those that are not doing well. Abroad, the menus have been adapted to local customs. For example, during the Indonesian crisis, French fries that had to be imported were removed from the menu and rice was replaced. Reading the life stories of big franchisees, it can be concluded that once the franchise is well established, there is a clear way to sail. Thomas Monaghan, founder of Domino Pizza, tells another story. At one time, the chain had $ 500 million in debt. Monaghan, a proud Catholic, said he changed his life by giving up his greatest sin, pride and devoting his life to & # 39; & # 39; God, family and pizza. & # 39; & # 39;

Meeting with Pope John Paul II had changed his life and his feeling of good and evil as & # 39; & # 39; personal and enduring. & # 39; & # 39; In the case of Monaghan, the reduction worked well. Worldwide, there are 7,096 Domino's Pizza stores with annual sales of approximately $ 3.78 billion. Monaghan sold most of his billion-dollar interest in the company and said he plans to use his fortune for further reasons for the Catholic Church. In the recent past, most food service millionaires have been franchisees, but a large number of prospective restaurateurs, especially those studying university and restaurant management university courses, are not particularly enthusiastic about the fast-food franchisee.

They prefer to own or operate a full service restaurant. Prospective franchisees should review their food experience and access to money and decide which franchise is right for them. If they have little or no food experience, they may consider starting their restaurant career with a cheaper franchise that offers start-up training. For those with experience and wanting a proven concept, the friendly chain that started franchising in 1999 may be a good choice. The chain has more than 700 units. Restaurants are family-friendly restaurants serving ice cream, sandwiches, soups and fast food.

Let's emphasize this point again: work in a restaurant you like and maybe imitate your restaurant. If you have enough experience and money, you can knock it out on your own. It's even better to work at a successful restaurant where you might have a partnership or ownership circle, or where the owner is considering retirement and may be willing to make payments over time for tax or other reasons.
Franchisees are in fact entrepreneurs, many of whom create chain bracelets.

McDonald's had the fastest system-wide service chain sales, followed by Burger King. Next came Wendy, Taco Bell, Pizza Hut and KFC. Subway, as one of hundreds of franchisees, generated sales totaling $ 3.9 billion. There is no doubt that the list of top-selling companies will be different in 10 years. Some current executives are experiencing a decline in sales and some are joining or buying out other companies – some of whom may be financial giants who have not been in the restaurant business before.

What food does the cruise ship crew eat?

Food keeps crew members completely out of integration, perhaps more than anything else on big ships. The availability of home food at sea is dramatically different, as home food varies dramatically. Some cruise lines have more Indian or Eastern European or Caribbean dishes, depending on the crew. Fortunately, cruise lines take food very seriously for the crew. It's a real deal – unlike, say, the old food in the mall. Of course, it has Mexico, Italy and China, but only through Taco Bell, Sbaro and Panda respectively. And these, of course, are hopelessly Americanized. Before multinationals, I doubt whether native Mexicans, Italians or Chinese would even admit that such foods are theirs – especially after eating them. But I'm shrinking.

Curiously, ships offer American flavors below the waterline, despite their lack on board. The irony is complete when you realize that almost 100% of Americans are entertainers who do not eat anything on offer. Why? Because hot dogs and hamburgers don't give in to attractive bodies. So why do ships bother? Because hot dogs and hamburgers are cheap. Better yet, both can sit for hours under a hot lamp and you never know. Or at least he wouldn't want a boy from Indonesia. The mystery solved.

But every day, every cruise line ship and sea every day has an Asian day. Large quantities of steamed white rice are always available for breakfast, lunch and dinner, preferring East Asian teams. I'll never forget my first trip to the team confused, on Carnival Fantasy. While I was piling up a couple of strips of steak on my plate – nothing in itself, if not American – my colleagues chose a white rice hill with a mixture of fish heads on top. This explains our radical difference in weight and perhaps our temperament.

Fortunately, I have a deep interest in food and have found the advantage of having different cuisines from different cultures. Many did not. Given how hard we all worked, the desire for familiar, comforting food was understandable. In addition, most teams were from rural areas where diversity and interest were limited. Just as a Kansas small town boy, for example, claims that foie gras may be as interested as a New York native, a small village boy from the Philippines may not be interested in microwave burritos. And after working 80 hours a week? Let the poor man have what he wants as he cries out loud!

But the real reason for foreign team members to integrate is not food: it's food habits.

No food is allowed in team cabins, although all team types will steal sooner or later. Many provide dry goods, some of which are occasionally even allowed. For example, Asians tend to stock up on whole instant noodle flats, and who knows of a secreted hot plate that allows for late-night snacks? But this food-restrictive maritime discipline was introduced for good reason. Two, in fact, because some ships have roach.

Prohibiting food in team cabins is the real reason, because it always reaches the toilets in the most non-biological way. The toilets are very, very sensitive. The team? Not really.

As we worked on the Royal Majesty of the Caribbean, we had to take the final theme to the extreme. Fish bones obscured the sewer system so often that the stern of the stern smelled of faeces. Literally. What killed me was that disclosing evidence of illegal nutrition was the only time many toilets were flushed! I'm still shaking when I see overworked zombies brushing their teeth next to the stuffed toilets, lids wide. For me, it was equally confusing as to why a team member wiped his shoe. The result was a backup of the ship's entire waste systems and no one other than the hotel director himself was forced to look for the culprit in the cabins. More will come later, but I would add that he swore a lot that day.

Despite all of this, some of us have room service on board. This does not mean that the team is happy to provide it. One evening, my order came from several sandwiches – I was hosting a party – which resulted in an annoyed chef's thumbs so deeply impressed with the bread that I could only see his fingerprints.

Passenger safety – How to stay safe while out of your comfort zone and while traveling

The following suggestions have been derived from my travels worldwide for 20 years or more. These observations are provided as a helpful supplement to other online resources that address travel-related personal security issues. I apologize to those who do not find these observations relevant to their particular situation. Let me say that these proposals are offered freely and without restriction, so that they may be by-passed. Very little of this information is original to me and I apologize if anyone has written something like this. Also, I am not a security specialist and do not claim to have expertise. These things are right for me … each reader's mileage may vary. Some of my ideas may actually leave people in authority and / or cause physical harm. Please read this with an open and critical look. .

Many US Embassy staff, host Federal Police and Army staff gave me advice and recommendations on foreign markets … mainly in Latin America, mainly in Western America, but also in Western Europe and the Pacific, and personal safety issues. Rimi countries.

My contribution is also from international and US expats living and working there. I know a lot of people in many countries have a lot of experience and I can honestly laugh at all these stupid and worrying ideas and problems. How you take it is your business … it's seriously concerned about the safety of all international travelers.

I needed to learn this stuff because I've lived and worked outside of the US most of my life. I traveled internationally for the first time in the 1960s and retired in 2005 to live in Argentina. Hopefully you understand that the world of Post 9-11 has really changed. The radicals of the right, the left and the brave religious extremists and the NarcoTerrorists celebrated everyone as the twin towers went down. You should also know that even before 9-11, international travel was more dangerous than in the 1960s. Now the angry boys all over the world have been encouraged more by the notion that bad guys are getting away from bad things … so they have become more aggressive.

* Try to FAMILYIZE yourself with the area you plan to visit. There are many different newsgroups that allow search companies to search for keywords covering your area of ​​interest. I use Yahoo News, the DogPile News Search element and more. I also search the web for local news sources in my area. Here are some questions to consider when looking for information about your geographic area of ​​interest:

* Are terrorist / organized crime groups currently active in the area?

* Do they aggressively attack foreigners when visiting? Or is it more local-to-local crime?

* How active are they? How violent have they been in the last 4-12 months?

* How complex are they? Do they use military weapons and tactics?

* Are they predictable? Can you expect security when you are away from known areas of activity?

* Do local citizens warn of visiting foreigners? Do you have any local contacts who can advise you?

Groups and individuals have shown their willingness to use terrorist / criminal tactics to advance their plans. While some threats are regionally focused, others have become international and affect many regions. Foreign visitors, military and diplomatic personnel are seriously targeted in almost every region of the world.


Consider the ways in which you may be the victim of a criminal / NarcoTerrorist attack. There are several factors to keep in mind:


Taxis: Never try to take a taxi alone. Never try to take a taxi off the street. ALWAYS have a taxi company card and call or have someone call the cab for you. If not, the following is the best solution for a taxi driver. Even the US Embassy's Marines have to take these precautions, and we know they're in good shape … pretty tough in the fight. They are also great sources of local local information. Unfortunately, one of the successful business of Criminal / NarcoTerror Land is picking up a rich man (s) from the taxi and around the corner there are two extra-gun thugs who send you to a quiet place, a rich guy, take his luggage, etc.

If a visa or debit card is found, they will send you to an ATM and have you withdraw your daily limit before they take you naked and leave you on the road. If … if they are impressed with what they find in your effects, thugs may decide that it is worth trying to sell you to drug traffickers (drug traffickers). They can ask for $ 5,000 – $ 15,000, knowing that NarcoTerrorists typically require a minimum of $ 250,000 in ransom. You can then spend the next several years of your life chained to a tree in the jungle sweating mosquitoes and eating under-cooked beans. If you or the taxi driver notice a suspicious vehicle or two nearby, consider asking the taxi driver to take you to the nearest police station … or to a busy area.

If you need to drive a car and your budget does not include an armored vehicle with "run out" tires, preceded by a "chase" and the next "blocking" van full of armed bodyguards, try renting / choosing a 4-wheel high clearance vehicle. A sturdy bumper is a good idea to break through the barricades. If you see a police roadblock with only one or two officers and one (or NOT) clearly in an official vehicle, consider operating or working around the roadblock. You may prefer to return quickly from the area to a point where you can turn around and leave the area. If this is really a fraud for the fake police (or the crooks pulling out of service), you should be fine. You may need a heavy truck for this maneuver. If this is a legitimate checkpoint / official police obstruction and they hit you, humbly and VERY politely explain that you are sorry and will never do it again, but your friend warned against the wrong roadblocks for the criminals / NarcoTerrorists. Official roadblocks around the world usually have many, many clearly marked police vehicles and uniforms / heavily armed officers. Remember that NarcoTerrorists also have police uniforms and outfits … but usually there are not too many official cars.

If you happen to be driving down the street and one or more people run across the car trying to stop you, do not be afraid to push the accelerator pedal as if you were trying to hit them. They get out of the way.

If you are in a known area for car crime and someone is deliberately reversing your vehicle, consider leaving the scene as soon as possible. It's a serious "What if …?" scenario.

In many countries, the police understand when you slow down the movement, but are unable to stop at traffic lights and stop at night because it is known to be too dangerous at night.

MAKE YOUR motorcycles and scooters not always a good idea if you have to try to escape when someone is shooting at you. The car page isn't much, but every little bit helps.

ATMs: Try to go to an ATM only during the day, anywhere in the world. Even in the US. Also pay attention to who is in the area before, after, during, and after. Awareness of the situation is tricky when you try to make an unpleasant machine work … so remember not to go to the ATMs alone.

Buses: Until 1995, I always felt safe on the bus. I would still take the Nuevo Laredo – Monterrey bus, but I would probably think twice about driving to the Juarez or Sinaloa area. Why? Various Colombian and Mexican NarcoTerror groups are stopping for buses full of people to feed government forces into the slaughter zones where IEDs take them out. I've seen the results right now, and seeing 40+ teenage army men brutally chopped up using home-made bombs will disturb your whole life.

If you happen to be one of the poor men shaking naked on the side of the road with 20 to 30 people watching NarcoTraficantes, female travelers, realize that you will spend the next several years of your life eating beans in the jungle. Poor people are going home … except for the young and pretty girls and teenage boys they want to make for the NarcoTraficantes military service.

NarcoTraficantes are studying at the same Islamic extremist terror schools as Al-Qaida and the Colombian / Mexican NarcoTraficantes' IEDs (improvised explosive devices) are really starting to appear … in recent cases, feed and blasting techniques have been used. In southern Mexico to kill many soldiers and federal police.

Do not leave your phone, camera, wallet or other valuables near the outdoor table of any restaurant or within the reach of a walking public. Try to sit as far away as possible from vehicle / pedestrian traffic. As always, play "What if …?" And watch out for your surroundings. Jenna Bush's wallet in Buenos Aires was full of daylight, and agents surrounded her.

When leaving an expensive place such as an electronics store, Arman, etc., an expensive restaurant or a nice hotel, you could simply define yourself as a potential expensive destination. If you carry parcels and put them in the car, try to secure the items in the trunk or lockable area, and remember that your next location is likely to be followed by evil intentions. If you are on a Range Rover or Cadillac Esplanade, you should understand that you are on a high quality target with little or no secure storage. If you stop and leave the vehicle in any unsafe place after you have been seen leaving an expensive place, do not be surprised if you come back later to find the locks broken or the vehicle stolen.

A wallet is an obligation and I will never carry it. Copies of credit cards, driver's license and passport, birth certificate, travel or residence documents (NOT the originals) carry a thin zippered pocket between the T-shirt and the outer shirt / sweater. Sometimes I prefer a photographer's vest that has a lot of inner / outer zipper or velcro pockets. This vest can carry as much as a small suitcase … about 4 pounds of stuff right now. Fanny packs are less secure, so I usually put just reading materials, cheap sunglasses, rubber, and so on. Cameras / GPSs and other expensive things are fitted in velcro pockets in a vest or coat pocket. As a side note, I have copied and reduced important documents needed for my daily portability and sent copies to multiple web-based email accounts so that I can replace them at any time from any Internet / print location.

The cash I carry is as small as possible. I keep high denominations in a money clip under one front pocket with a broken handkerchief on top. Another cash clip includes the daily distribution of small bills in another pocket so I don't have to blink large bills for most purchases. It is also filled with a front pocket and a second handkerchief. Most of my funds, original passport and other documents, valuables, etc., are in WalMart's small combination safe, which can fit into my luggage, which I control when traveling in the hotel office safe. PLEASE NOTE that I do not agree with a number of suggestions that a paper-lure pocket should be thrown away to alert attackers. I prefer throwing low-denomination lures everywhere, because it takes longer to disperse the focus for better access.

Baggage Security: Most complaints about theft, damage or loss are related to the contents of the baggage. Smart travelers make a written inventory of their luggage and take pictures in the event of a loss. Carry important items such as medicines, eyeglasses and expensive jewelry, a travel vest used by photographers, carry small items, etc. in your hand luggage. My vest contains up to 8 kilos of goodies. Copy the contents of your wallet and passport. Carry a copy in your hand luggage and leave one back at home. Keep your luggage under control until you check in at your destination. Consider traveling with a good looking luggage. More expensive-looking luggage can be targeted against its perceived content. External bag labels should not include your full home address and phone number. I labeled my mobile number, phone number and email address. I don't put my name or any ties on the bags. In the event of losing your beautiful luggage, weigh it with big strips, sideways on the outside, your phone numbers, email and more.

Think of durable lockable or secured luggage that can withstand hundreds of other luggage at the bottom without opening. It's a good idea to add an extra strip … $ 5 for a wide nylon strap with side zippers on WalMart … or an airport plastic wrap or duct tape in your luggage lock so no one can unlock your luggage without detection. When flying, NOT ALL your bags are locked. I only use self-closing plastic ties. They fit well with my luggage. All airport inspectors have substitutes when they need to break your ties to check your bags. You can buy them at any home improvement store for about a dollar. The reason for this is that smugglers slip drugs / weapons, etc. into their luggage only to be retrieved later and possibly by force. Passengers have unknowingly carried illegal substances / firearms which they have carried in their luggage by baggage handlers, only to be subsequently seized by the authorities. What explanation would you give to the foreign government to prove your innocence, why do you carry drugs or weapons? If your luggage was properly sealed, you should damage it before opening it. Report baggage damage immediately before opening the cabinet.

Luggage Locks: If the bag has a combination lock, I put a piece of adhesive tape with the combo in the bag … usually 0-0-0. This is because my bag suffered serious damage when it was forced into the bag, even if it was opened. A sign of the times, no?

Airplane Security: In addition to the obvious precautions, I would recommend trying to book a window seat as close to the center of the cabin as possible. There are bad guys gathering behind and in the front of each cabin to guard the victims. Consider what you can do to prevent your business / military / nationality / religion from appearing.

Cruise Ship Security: Cruise ships are like a small town where passengers are encouraged to forget their worries and relax aboard. It is natural for vacation travelers to be on guard, especially when they are at the seaside resort. Try not to have a false sense of security on a cruise ship that could ruin your vacation by becoming a victim of crime. Before deportation, consider the following preventive actions:

After entering the cabin and with the door still open, always check the interior of the bathroom or the closest one before entering the bathroom. Don't think your cabin is as safe as a hotel. Many people have the keys to your cabin and your cabin door may remain idle for hours when the cleaning staff or cabinet attendant service the room. Cabin door locks are sometimes terribly outdated and are not reactivated as often as hotel rooms. Probably don't leave valuable items lying down. It's a good idea to invent your own luggage and take pictures of expensive items at home, and even send emails to your webmail account so they can be easily retrieved anywhere before they are packed home in the event of a loss. Since most boat passengers are set up on a pay account system, be sure to use the ship's safe to store valuable items, papers, credit cards or extra cash. Use all cabin door locks, including night blinds. Consider carrying a hardware store doorstep in your luggage and seating for added security. Some of these are available through online vendor alerts. Do not open your cabin door to strangers. Whatever a person wants, one can express the closed and locked door on the other side. Be sure to teach your children this important procedure.

As in a hotel, protect the cabin key and cabin number. Unscrupulous crews or travelers are looking for a way to break or leave an unattended key. When leaving the port, be sure to leave the key behind the check-in desk before leaving.

Remember that a fake hairspray / deodorant may be safe if you need to attach small items and a safe is not available. Once you have boarded and reached the sea, do not think that you are completely safe from crime. While there is a risk that you may be abducted or attacked by an outside predator on a cruise ship, crew members or fellow passengers may be committing crimes just as easily. Many cruise lines hire temporary and seasonal workers at low wages. As a result, the turnover is high and cruise lines are struggling to keep the ship's full staff. Although most crew members are hardworking and honest people, you cannot expect the ship to be properly screened by this nice cabin crew, waiter or deck crew. Consider a Family Safety Plan: When you bring your children on board, be sure to set up family rules. ahead. Set curfews and restrictions … just like at home. Especially teenagers should be told that they should never send team members to public places, nor should team members be allowed in your salon. Staying at sea can cause false sense of security. Although the number of crime cases per thousand is relatively low, there may still be predators on board. Ship nightclubs, casinos, swimming pools and hot tubs are a favorite spot for victims.

You must also keep watch over drunk passengers. The consumption of food and liqueur is on board ships, which causes some people who are unfamiliar with it. The fact that the passengers are dressed does not mean that they are behaving appropriately or not being too aggressive. It is not unheard of for a ferry to slip a drug on your drink and use it as you would on a shore. There are pickpockets, wallet thieves and cabin burglars aboard waiting for you to drop your guard or become careless. There are also scammers who search and prey on rich vacationers when given the chance.

Your child safety plan may include cot control, curfew, restrictions and special meeting places. Beware of the children they visit, just like at home. Your children may come in contact with other children who use drugs or who are in trouble, such as at home. Try to limit your child's sponsored activities in public places. You should contact your children periodically, even if they are instructed. For them, navigating a ship if you are otherwise engaged is not a good idea. You should always have a contingency plan and appoint a crew member as a contact in case your child does not show up or if you are leaving port. Make sure the children understand that there's nothing you can do to get a child out of the police when he or she is smuggled in a foreign country.

You're no longer in Kansas. Although you came aboard a US port, that does not mean that you are protected by the US legal system. Most ships are registered in non-US countries and operate in territorial waters where US law may not apply. The cruise industry does not consistently report crime data, if any, to the FBI, nor does it maintain a database of ships with the most crime problems. Crimes on board a ship sometimes end up in the "no man's land" of law enforcement. The crime may occur between two people of different nationalities, on a ship from a third country and in the territorial waters of a fourth country. The applicable law is International Maritime Law and is not as well developed as US law. Reporting a crime on board a cruise ship does not mean that anything is being done or that the crime is ever being investigated. The FBI is the only US law enforcement agency that can investigate a major crime, but only if it occurs in international waters, otherwise the crime will be reported to the nearest foreign jurisdiction and to the embassies involved. In many cases, prosecution of crimes is left to the local port authority, where no one can predict the outcome.

Note that if you or a member of your family gets in trouble on board a ship or in port, you may be liable to foreign law. You need to be alert, be careful, and stay safe at sea. For more information on cruise ship security or how your ship deals with issues such as lost luggage or crime, please contact the cruise ship directly and request written disclosure of these policies and regulations. You can also contact the New York Cruise Line International, which represents the 25 largest cruise lines.

Disaster prevention

Location: Local terrorists may target locations visited by foreigners or foreign military personnel, such as certain hotels, apartment buildings, public transportation centers, and nightclubs. Avoid potential destination locations. Often they use staff from overseas offices, taxi drivers, airport staff (especially banking / money exchange agencies) and adult entertainment staff as compatriots or as a source of information about potential lucrative goals.

Opportunity: Terrorists and criminals are looking for "soft targets" … so learn to avoid appearing. It is difficult to emphasize the need to remain vigilant, to ensure good personal safety and to alert competent authorities to suspicious behavior. If you find that you can't stay out at night, try walking down the center of the street (not always possible). Be especially careful when passing a large commercial vehicle or a vehicle full of people in yards and deep doorways near your road. Walk steadily with strong, firm steps … shoulders back, head upright, head and eyes constantly moving. Use windows / mirrors near the street to control your surroundings. Under no circumstances should anyone be allowed to engage you in a conversation at this time. The criminals try to slow you down until their helpers come to attack you. Keep going, talk to your cell phone as if having a conversation … preferably in a language you don't think potential attackers can. To attack you, terrorists generally need to notice you, your connection, or your location as a target. Think seriously about how to avoid becoming an easy target.

Watch out for criminals / narcoTerrorists preparing and conducting attacks with predictable steps. Through vigilance, you might recognize the preparation of an attack before it is executed. Be wary of unusual behaviors that may indicate intelligence gathering, tracking, attack material collection, dry runs, and samples. For example:

* Take photos or videos of potential targets

* Write notes or sketch details of a potential target

* Unusual attention to details of routine activities and security measures

* Using false detection

* Paying cash for items you usually buy with credit

* Buying large quantities of items that can be used as part of an attack (such as chemicals or cell phones)

* If you notice anything unusual, immediately notify the Security Officers for further investigation. Write down the person's description and activities, the time and the equipment used.


Terrorist attacks on the Spanish / English / Japanese rail systems, Mexican border towns, Bali, Indonesia, Luxor, Egypt, London, England and other tourist destinations signal an increased threat to foreign travelers. When visiting a new place, it is natural to visit sites of interest. While watching, you should keep in mind good crime / anti-terrorism practices.

Plan ahead

* Examine potential hazards known in the area. If the risk is increased, take additional precautions or delay your actions.

* Plan activities and a route that includes safe places. Keep thinking, "What if …"

* Ask a friend or coworker to join you – small groups are usually safer than individuals.

* When viewing with others, determine where to meet when they are separated in an emergency. Make sure someone knows your route (acquaintances, business contacts, hotel staff?) And when you can come back.


* Hide your national / business / religious affiliation and try to blend in with other tourists. In many cases, US red white and blue t-shirts, football / baseball logo clothing, and religious jewelry are too conspicuous.

* View and follow the local culture. Activities such as displaying affection, drinking alcohol or wearing shorts or skirts may not be appropriate.

* Don't pay too much attention to yourself. Avoid loud or crazy behavior. Walking the streets at night in an unusual state is very dangerous in many places.

Carmine "Lilo" Galante – Cigar

He was as vicious as Mafia boss Vito Genovese, as ambitious as Vito Genovese, and he dealt deeply with the heroin business as Vito Genovese. However, Carmine "Cigar" Galante does not die for natural reasons like Vito Genovese (though in prison). Instead, Galante was murdered as one of the most memorable mob hits of all time. After his body was filled with lead, he lay on his back in the tiny backyard of a Queens restaurant, and his trademark cigar clenched tightly between his teeth.

Camillo Galante was born on February 21, 1910 in Stanton Street, 27 Lower East Side of Manhattan. As both his parents, the fisherman Vincenzo and his wife (maiden name Vingenza Russo) were born in the seaside village of Castellammarese del Golfo in Sicily, Galante was a pure first generation Sicilian / American. Galante had two brothers and two sisters, and when he went to school, Galante used his first name, Camillo, and demanded that he be called Carmine instead. Over the years, it has been shortened to "Lilo," which was the name of most of its associates, Galante.

For the first time, when he was fourteen years old, Galante found himself stealing from a shop counter. However, since he was a minor at the time, there is no record of his arrest in his official police record.

At various times, Galante attended public schools at 79 and 120, but dropped out of school at the age of fifteen. Galante was several times in and out of the Reform School and was considered an "incurable criminal."

From 1923 to 1926, Galante apparently worked for Lubin's Artificial Flower Company at 270 Broadway West. However, it was a desire to comply with the law that Galante was in paid employment when he was actually pursuing a very lucrative criminal career.

In December 1925, Galante was arrested for assault. However, money changed hands between the Galante people and the cunning police, and as a result, Galante was released without serving a prison sentence. In December 1926, Galante was arrested again, but this time he was convicted of second-degree assault and robbery and sentenced to two to five years in prison. Galante was released from prison in 1930 and, in order to satisfy his probation officer, received a new deceptive "job" at the Brien Fishery Company on South Street near 105 Fulton Fish Market.

However, Galante's nature was not to be on the right side of the law. On March 15, 1930, five men entered the Martin Weinstein Shoe Factory in the corner of York and Washington Street in Brooklyn Heights. On the 6th floor of the building, Mr Weinstein was in the process of concentrating his weekly payroll under the protection of Walter De Castillia, 84th Prefectural Police Officer. Five men took the elevator to the 6th floor. While one man stood guard at the elevator, the other four men entered Mr Weinstein's office. They ignored the $ 7,500 sitting on the table and opened Officer De Castillia – the young girl's married father – with a nine-year military officer. Officer De Castillia was stabbed six times in the chest and died instantly.

Four men walked calmly back to the elevator and joined their cohort who guarded the elevator, Louis Sella. Stella led the five men downstairs. He later told police that the men had left the building, walked calmly to the parked car, got in the car and fled the scene. When the police arrived a few minutes later just two blocks from the station, the killers were nowhere to be seen. Sella described the five men as "early to mid-twenties, with dark skin and dark hair." According to Sella, the men were all "very well dressed".

The police theory was that, because no money had been taken, it was a planned attack by Officer De Castillia. On August 30, 1930, Galante was arrested, along with Michael Consolo and Angelo Presinzano, and charged with murdering Officer De Castillia. However, all four men were soon released due to lack of evidence.

On December 25, 1930, four suspicious men were sitting in a green sedan on Briggs Avenue in Brooklyn. Police Detective Joseph Meenahan happened in the area. He spotted the men in the sedan, pulled the gun, and approached the sedan carefully. One of the men cried to Meenahan, "Stop there copper, or we will burn you."

Before Meenahan responded, the shooting began with the green sedan. Meenahan was shot in the leg and a six-year-old girl walking near her mother was seriously wounded. The driver of the sedan had trouble starting the car, so four men jumped out of the sedan and tried to escape. Three men managed to escape the area by jumping on a passing truck, but four men slipped as they tried to crash the truck and arrested Meenahan. That man was Carmine Galante.

When Meenahan brought Galante to the station, a group of detectives, angry that one of them was wounded, began giving Galante a "police station setup". Despite getting the pieces, Galante refused to give up the identity of the men. He was subsequently tried and convicted as one of four men who had kidnapped a Lieberman Brewery in Brooklyn. On January 8, 1931, Galante was sent to Sing Sing Prison in Ossining, New York. He was later transferred to the Clinton Correctional Facility in Dannemora, New York, where he remained until his release on May 1, 1939.

During her stay in Galante's prison, she was subjected to an IQ test, which revealed that she had an unfortunate IQ of only 90, which, although she was well into her twenties, was equated to a 14-year-old. It was also noted that Galante was diagnosed with a "neuropathic psychopathic personality". A physical assessment showed that Galante had a head injury as a result of a 10-year-old car accident, an ankle fractured at the age of eleven, and Galante showed signs of early gonorrhea, likely to occur on one of many brothels controlled by a mob.

After being released from prison, in 1939 Galante got a new counterfeit job at his old job at the Lubin artificial flower company. In February 1941, Galante became a member of Longshoreman's 856 Union, where he apparently worked as a "stevedore." However, Galante has probably been very rarely employed; one of the benefits of being a Mafia.

No exact date is available, but Galante was invited to join the Bonanno crime family in the early 1940s. Despite the fact that his boss was America's youngest mafia boss, Joe Bonanno, Galante played many hits for Vito Genovese throughout the 1930s and 1940s.

When Genovese was spontaneously in exile in Italy (wanted on a murder charge and flew to police before being arrested), Genovese received quick cuts with the help of Italian fascist dictator Benito Mussolini. Mussolin had a shoe in America called Carlo Tresa. Tresa sparked much of Mussolini's agitation by constantly writing anti-fascist feelings in his radical Italian-language newspaper, Il Martello, which was sold in American Italian communities.

Genovese sent the message back to America under Frank Garofalo, Joseph Bossano that Tresa had to go. Garofalo gave Tresa a contract with Galante, who hid Tresa for a few days to determine the best time and place to beat her.

On January 11, 1943, Tresa was walking down Fifth Avenue near 13th Street when a black Ford sedan pulled over. Ford stopped and Galante jumped out, firearm in hand. Galante stabbed Tresa several times in the back and head, killing a newspaper editor instantaneously. Amazingly, Galante saw a parole officer fleeing the scene, but due to wartime petrol rationing, the parole officer was unable to track a black Ford that included Galante and a smoking gun. Tresa's murder was never arrested.

In 1953, Bonanno Galante sent Montreal, Canada, to control the interests of the Bonanno family north of the border. In addition to the very lucrative Canadian gambling rackets, the Bonannos were heavy on heroin imports, from France to Canada and then to America – the notorious French Community. Galante supervised the Canadian drug operation for three years. But in 1956, the Canadian police struck Galante's involvement. Because they did not have enough evidence to arrest Galante, they deported Galante back to America, classifying Galante as an "undesirable alien."

In 1957, Genovese called for an All-American Summit Mafioso Summit, to be held in New York's Apalachin High in the Capitol of Stefano Magaddino Buffalo's Crime Family, Joseph Barbara. To prepare for this meeting, on October 19, 1956, several New York crime figures were invited to Barbara's home to present the guidelines for the planned meeting; whose main purpose was to win the Genovese Capo di Tutti Capi "or" the superior of all the chiefs ".

Returning to New York after the meeting, he rode Naban Galante near New York for speeding. As his driving license was suspended, Galante gave the police a telephone. He was immediately arrested and sentenced to 30 days in prison. But the Mafia tentacles also reached the New York State Police Department directly. After some mobbed New York lawyers made the right phone calls to the state of New York, Galante was released within 48 hours. However, Sergeant Edgar Roswell, a state police officer, noted that Galante had admitted to police that he had been staying at an Arlington hotel with a local businessman named Joseph Barbara. This prompted Roswell to pay special attention to Barbara's residency at Apalachin in New York.

Less than a month later, on November 17, 1957, at the request of Don Vito Genoves, all Mafia members from all over America moved to Barbara's residence. These men included Sam Giancana of Chicago, Santo Trafficante of Florida, John Scalish of Cleveland, and Joe Profac and Tommy Lucchese of New York City. Galante boss Joe Bonanno decided not to attend and sent Galante instead.

Sergeant Roswell noted that the day before, the nearby Arlington hotel had been booked with suspicious-looking tugboats for the rafters. Roswell asked the right questions and was able to confirm that the man who made the reservations for these men was Joseph Barbara himself. Roswell drove to Barbara's resident and spotted dozens of luxury cars parked outside, some with suburban license plates.

Roswell called for supplies and in minutes dozens of treachers arrived with drawn guns. Group troops attacked Barbara's residence, followed by chaos. Men who wore expensive suits, hats and shoes from the house. Some were arrested immediately; some reached their cars and drove away early before police could set up roadblocks. Others jumped out of the windows and penetrated through the coniferous forests. One of these men was Carmine Galante, who hid in a cornfield until the police left Barbara's residence. She then returned to Barbara's home and arranged for her safe passage back to New York.

The next day, when news of the attack on Barbara's house hit American newspapers, the cover was blown away by the false idea that the mafia was a myth, Galante went into the wind or mob-pulled a "lamb". On January 8, 1958, the New York Herald Tribune wrote that Galante had fled to Italy with an old friend, Salvatore "Lucky" Luciano, who had captured an Italian friend, "Lucky" Luciano, who had fled to exile after spending nine years in an American prison. download. Another report said it wasn't Luciano Galante's, but rather Joe "Adonis" Doto, another Italian exile mob boss. On January 9, the New York Journal American reported that Galante was not in Italy at all, but in Havana, Cuba, along with longtime member of the National Criminal Commission, Meyer Lansky, who had numerous casino interests in Cuba.

In April 1958 it was somehow leaked that Galante was now back in the US and lives somewhere in the New York area. Local laws went to work and in July, Galante was arrested by the Federal Bureau of Addiction as he was driving near Holmdale in New Jersey. He was charged with participating in a major heroin deal involving many Galante. Vito Genovese, John Ormento, Joe Di Palermo and Vincent Gigante were also arrested in the same case. Galante, who used his New York law firm again, was released on a $ 100,000 bail. Galante's lawyers were able to postpone further legal proceedings for nearly two years. It was not until 17 May 1960 that Galante was officially charged and released again on bail.

On January 20, 1961, Galante's trial began, and Judge Thomas F. Murphy canceled Galante's bail, ordering Galante to shoot him directly. However, Galante's fortune came to a standstill when the trial was announced on May 15. The jury chairman, 68-year-old apparel manufacturer Harry Appel, seemed to be in misfortune when he crashed into a building on 15th Street in Manhattan. After doctors arrived and Appel was taken to a nearby hospital, it was determined that Appel had suffered a broken back. No one had fallen for Appel, nor had Appel been hurt and frightened that anyone had pushed her. Although they had no solid evidence, law enforcement believed that Appel was being pushed by the Galante Cohort, with a warning to tell no one, and they allowed Appel and his family members to live.

Galante, who feels alive and hacked, was released from prison by securing a $ 135,000 bond.

Unfortunately, all good things must end.

In April 1962, Galante's second trial began.

During the trial, a bit of chaos reigned in the courtroom when one of Galante's co-defendants, a nasty creature named Tony Mirra (who was claimed to have killed 30 to 40 people), became so intact that he lifted his chair and threw it at the prosecutor. Fortunately, the prosecutor missed his chair and landed in the jury box, forcing frightened jurors to scatter in all directions. The order was reinstated and the trial continued, which was bad news for both Galante and Mirra. Both men were convicted and on 10 July 1962 Galante was sentenced to thirty years in prison. Mirra was also sent to prison for a very long time. It is not clear whether Mirra received an extra penalty for the chair throwing incident.

Galante was first sent to Alcatraz Prison, located on an island fortress in the San Francisco Bay. He then moved to Lewisburg Penitentiary in Leavenworth, Kansas before serving the final years of his prison sentence in Atlanta, Georgia. Galante was finally released from prison on January 24, 1974, full of heat and sulfur and ready to start business again. However, Galante had to be conditioned until 1981, so he had to be careful not to keep a high profile. Unfortunately, being in the background was not Galante's makeup.

While in prison, Galante announced that he was going to control the New York Mafia through his throat. At the time, Carlo Gambino, the head of the Gambino crime family, was the accepted leader of the five New York City mafia families. Gambino was pious and generally quiet and reserved; well respected for his business spirit and his ability to keep peace with his family and other mafia families. However, Galante had to be used for Gambino or his business method.

By the time Galante was released, his boss, Joe Bonanno, had been forced to "retire" and was living in Arizona, Tuscon. The new Bonanno boss was Rusty Rastelli. But because Rastelli was a jerk at the time, Galante took over Bonannos as "street commander". However, Rastell was considered the boss of Bonannos and was not too happy with how Galante shook his stuff on the streets of New York.

Galante took an unusual step that was not appreciated by other members of the Bonanno crime family, surrounded by Sicilian-born Mafioso, such as Caesar Bonventre, Salvatore Catalano and Baldo Amato. These mages were jealously called "zippers" by the American mafia for their quick way in Italian. These zippers were closely related to the drug trade and were in direct opposition to those in the Genovese crime family led by Funz Tieri, just as cunning and vicious as Galante.

Galante had a small setback when the FED arrested his "involvement with known criminals" in 1978, which was his conditional violation. As Galante flowed in prison, he began ordering from his men the mobsters of the criminal families of Genovese and Gambino, who contributed to Galante's global drug operation. Since Carlo Gambino is now dead (due to natural causes), Galante thought he had the flesh to push the rest of the crime family bosses into the background. Out of prison, he sent a message to his superiors, "Who among you is going to stand up to me?"

On March 1, 1979, Galante was released from prison and airborne because he truly believed other crime bosses feared him. Like Vito Genovese before him, Galante imagined himself as the "boss of all bosses" and it was only a matter of time before other bosses dominated and awarded him the title.

Galante, however, underestimated the power and will of other Mafioso bosses in New York. As Galante orbited the streets of New York, other bosses met in Boca Raton, Florida to determine Galante's fate. Funzi Tieri, Jerry Catena, Paul Castellano and Florida boss Santo Trafficante attended this meeting. These powerful men voted unanimously if a mob of peace were to prevail in the streets of New York, Galante had to go. Rastell, who was still in prison, was consulted and even Joe Bonanno, who lives in Arizona, was asked if he had any reservations about catching his former close associate. Both Rastelli and Bonanno signed Galante's murder contract and Galante's days were numbered.

July 12, 1979 was a hot and sticky summer day as 69-year-old Carmine Galante Lincoln climbed 205 Knickerbocker Avenue in the Bushwick section of Brooklyn. Knickerbocker Avenue had been a turf fracture for the Bonanno crime family for more than 50 years, and over the years, there were numerous mob seats in a block of several blocks of flats.

Carmine Galante left Lincoln, then said goodbye to the driver: nephew James Galante. Carmine Galante wore a white short-sleeved shirt and, as usual, sucked on a huge Churchill cigar. Galante settled into a small restaurant and was greeted by Joe and Mary's restaurant owner Joe Turano. During that visit, Galante had met with Leonardo "Nardo" Coppola, a close associate of Turano and Galante's, at an unidentified mobile company.

At about 1.30 pm, Cappola walked to a restaurant with zippers Baldo Amato and Cesare Bonventre, who were cousins, and from the same village where Galante's parents were: Castellammarese del Golfo. By this time, Galante and Turano had already finished their meal, so as the three newcomers sat down and dined, Galante and Turano's yard slipped into the courtyard of the backyard and sat under a controlled yellow and turquoise umbrella. After Cappola, Bonventre and Amato stopped eating, they joined the other two men outside. Galante and Turano smoked cigars and drank roasted espresso with Anisette (only tourists and non-Italians drink Sambuca).

Galante sat with his back in the small garden, Amato to the left and Bonventre to the right. Turano and Cappola sat opposite the table, their backs to the door to the restaurant.

At about 2:40 p.m., a four-door blue Mercury Montego parked in front of Joe and Mary's restaurant. The car was stolen about a month earlier. The driver, wearing a red mask with a mask on his face, stepped out of the car and stood in the guard's seat, holding a 3030 M1 carbine rifle menacingly in his hand. Another three men, who also wore ski masks, jumped out of the car and ran to the restaurant. They passed a few startled eateries who were still eating lunch and rushed to the courtyard.

As they entered the courtyard, one masked man said to another, "Take him, Sal!"

A gunman named "Sal" started firing a double-deck firearm at Galante several times, pushing Galante from his chair as he climbed back. Galante was hit with 30 pellets, one knocked on his left eye. Galante had probably died before being hit on the ground, and the cigar still remained tight between his teeth.

When shooting at Galante, Joe Turano shouted, "What are you doing?"

The same armed man turned to Turano and fired on Turano's chest while shooting at Turano forever.

Cappola jumped up from the table and either Amato or Bonventre (not sure which shot) shot Cappola in the face, then five times in the chest. Cappola landed face down and the killer with a firearm exploded from behind Coppola.

Three masked men then rushed out of the restaurant and into the fleeing car. Witnesses outside the restaurant said the car led to Flushing Avenue on Knickerbocker Avenue, then disappeared around the corner. Bonventre and Amato, both wearing leather jackets despite the suffocating heat, soon followed the three gunmen out of the restaurant. They walked calmly down the quarter, got into blue Lincoln and drove away as if they had care in the world.

The body of Galante was laid to the Provenzano-Lanza Funeral Home on 43 Second Avenue in the Lower East Side. Such masses, usually associated with the mafia wave, were significantly absent. On 17 July Galante was buried in Queens Cemetery of St. John. As the Feds counted, only 59 people attended Galante's funeral mass and burial. The Feds also reported that no mafia-born men were caught with CCTV cameras either awake or at a funeral.

One Fed commented on the low turnout: "Galante was so bad, people didn't want to see him even when he was dead."

Although the newspapers played the killing with scary front-page photos, the public seemed overwhelmed by the scale of the event. The young boy stepped up to the policeman who was on guard.

"Was he an actress?" the child told the police officer.

Police responded, "No, he was a gangster."

Drive through the desert

One of the most life-changing experiences in my life – perhaps because it was extremely traumatic – happened to me when I first traveled to the beautiful state of California to take up my new job in 2000.

At that time I was working at St. In Louis, MO, and I had just accepted a job in Northern California. I had a handful of days before starting so I decided to drive across the country from Missouri to California at my picturesque light blue Pontiac Grand Am. I drove west on Missouri, Kansas, and Colorado on I-70. It was a pleasant enough ride. I still remember driving the vast expanse of the Kansas prairie – I've never traveled such a wide plain before in my life – and enjoying the sunset on the flattest and widest horizon I've ever seen. I also remember a quaint country hotel where I stayed overnight and the breathtaking snowy peaks as I drove through Colorado the day after passing Denver.

Pretty soon I reached Utah and took I-15 north to Salt Lake City, where I got onto I-80, which went west to California. As I left Salt Lake City, I was faced with a long journey through the barren wasteland – Utah and Nevada deserts – a difficult, relentless journey. I still remember checking my gas when I left Salt Lake City – the gas gauge was counted as half empty (or half empty, depending on how you look at it)! "No problem," I thought to myself. "That should be enough to guide me to the next city where I can fill myself." And so I began my fateful journey through the barren Bonneville salt flats in the dreaded desert west of Salt Lake City.

As I drove on, the desert creeped out in front of me – a wide, chipped wasteland. Not the slightest hint of civilization or culture a mile away. I continued on the highway, nervously glancing at the gas meter. The sun beat mercilessly. Occasionally I passed the truck on an otherwise empty road. No car to see. The gas gauge continued to fall and there was still nothing. I began to wonder if I would ever get to the next city. I began to foresee terrible scenarios – being in the middle of the desert without a car, food, water or gas. Even if I had a cell phone – and I didn't at the time – it would probably have been useless in the midst of salt flats!

Finally, I literally drove to the steams and prayed with all power to Jesus Christ, but still pushed through the desert hoping for a miracle! And the miracle came! As soon as I heard that my car's engine was screaming, I reached the gas station, which was driven by drivers. It seemed the only gas station in this desert mile away – a dilapidated company that charged petrol and other provisions – but it was a real godsend at the time! Oah! Nirvana! I whispered thanks to God as the petrol tank in my car greedily swallowed the petrol I pumped in there!

As I continued my journey through the Nevada deserts and as I approached California from a distance, it really seemed to be the promised land – a green blur appeared above the many hills of Northern California, signifying the pledge of salvation that I had left behind. And as I drove down a hilly road in California, approaching my destination, it really seemed to be "a land flowing with milk and honey!" It may sound a bit naïve, but I've had that experience ever since. I can't help but wonder what would have happened if I had driven the desert roads, the gas gauge was empty, and nothing but the vast expanses of barren desert in all directions! This experience makes me think of something for granted and makes me appreciate art, culture and civilization even more!

Kansas's enormous prairie horizon, Colorado's majestic mountainous horizon, and Utah's and Nevada's desert horizon are rooted in my memory. This experience inspires me to move forward in life even when it feels like I am driving through an empty gas tank through the desert – because if you postpone it, you may just reach somewhere in the middle of an abandoned gas station. it will save your life and allow you to continue your journey to all the promised land you hope for!

In this modern world, with all the comforts that civilization offers us, you could imagine that there was no room for exploration or adventure, but that thought could not be further from the truth! As long as there are people on earth, there are still new horizons to explore, because all experience is subjective and civilization is always changing!

How do your household chemicals affect the environment?

Millions of people use household chemicals every day to keep things clean, fresh, and pest-free. Unfortunately, we do not understand the damage we are doing to the environment during this process. If we look at the ingredients of these chemicals and how they are harmful to the environment, perhaps it is enough to make us change our ways and create eco-friendly homes for our own benefit and for our ecosystems.


Household chemicals include cleaning products (some of which include bleach, chlorine and ammonia), pesticides, fertilizers, paints, car liquids, candles, fragrant sprays, and many other environmentally hazardous household products. Household cleaners, cleaning products, batteries and garden pesticides affect the environment when they contaminate soil or water. Even constant exposure to small amounts of many harmful substances in homes can pose a long-term risk to humans and animals.

Many laundry detergents contain phosphates that can pollute the oceans. Phosphates in smaller bodies of water can contribute to the excessive growth of algae, which depletes the oxygen supply in the water and creates harmful conditions for the animals. Households with septic tanks are discharged directly into the environment and can reach water bodies without purification.

Household chemicals are made from ingredients that can be harmful or fatal if swallowed or ingested. Bleaching agent and ammonia in various cleaning products can cause respiratory health problems if exposed too much. Some toxic household products can cause birth defects, brain damage, coma or death. Normal home chemistry is also associated with many common health problems such as headaches, joint pains, sleep deprivation, asthma, allergies and depression. Housewives are at greater risk of developing cancer if they are exposed to harmful chemicals in their homes every day.


In addition to the dangers, there are also detrimental effects of their household chemicals on the environment and on our health. Overuse of antimicrobial cleaners has been shown to cause antibiotic-resistant germs, which can only be eliminated by more harmful chemicals. Pesticides damage the environment with harsh chemicals, which are only intended to harm certain pests. The propellants contained in the nozzles contain chlorofluorocarbons, which have been identified as harmful to the earth's ozone. We sacrifice a small portion of the rich environment each time we use pesticides at home. The negative effects continue when we look at everything we do in the environment and affect our own lives.

Detergents, detergents, pesticides and weeds often get into the soil and then into water bodies. These chemicals, as well as runoff, can be harmful or deadly to marine animals and plants. Residues of household chemicals can seep into the soil and contaminate groundwater supplies after improper handling. Everyday household medicines, cosmetics and chemicals are harmful to the reproductive and immune systems of fish and turtles exposed to harmful ingredients. Herbicides and non-biodegradable chemicals in soaps and shampoos are also harmful to aquatic organisms when they enter the water. Polluted waters affect the diversity and growth of marine life and continue to threaten drinking or resting. Also, wastewater is often emptied into water bodies, which results in people being exposed to these harmful chemicals.

What can we do about it?

Now that you know everything about the home's environmental effects, let's see what you can do. Buy natural cleaners that do not contain harmful chemicals, or buy all-in-one cleaners to cover most cleaning needs. Use baking soda, alcohol or vinegar as an alternative to harmful chemicals. Properly dispose of your dry cleaners and other hazardous household items so as not to affect ecosystems and your own health. Take the time to help the environment you live in and the remote people affected by your activities. Before making a purchase, make sure you are doing the right thing with your health and the environment.